Russ Mitchell recaps the major historical events that occurred on August 26 in this video clip from This Day in History. He includes the birth of Mother Teresa, who was born in Macedonia, and the first televised Major League Baseball game. This first game was actually a double header hosted by the Los Angeles Dodgers, and against the Reds. Also, Cardinal Albino Luciani of Venice was elected the 264th pope, and he took the name John Paul I.
Colorado Rockies Team History & Encyclopedia
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Much of the play-by-play, game results, and transaction information both shown and used to create certain data sets was obtained free of charge from and is copyrighted by RetroSheet.
Win Expectancy, Run Expectancy, and Leverage Index calculations provided by Tom Tango of InsideTheBook.com, and co-author of The Book: Playing the Percentages in Baseball.
Total Zone Rating and initial framework for Wins above Replacement calculations provided by Sean Smith.
Full-year historical Major League statistics provided by Pete Palmer and Gary Gillette of Hidden Game Sports.
Some defensive statistics Copyright © Baseball Info Solutions, 2010-2021.
Some high school data is courtesy David McWater.
Many historical player head shots courtesy of David Davis. Many thanks to him. All images are property the copyright holder and are displayed here for informational purposes only.
SABR Triple Plays Database
Welcome to the SABR Triple Plays Database, a comprehensive list of all triple plays turned in the major leagues since 1876.
Click the link below to find a list of all known triple plays in major-league history, sortable by date, team(s), runners on base, play sequence, fielders, pitchers, opposing batter, unassisted, end of game, and other categories.
Triple Play trivia nuggets: Click here for some fun facts about triple plays courtesy of Chuck Rosciam, including the story of a triple play where the ball changed hands 10 times, the only player to be put out in a triple play twice in one season for two different teams, a reliever who threw only one pitch to get three outs, and the only team to turn two triple plays in the same game.
Most triple plays in a season: The all-time record for most triple plays in a season might never be broken. A total of 19(!) triple plays were turned in 1890, but there were three major leagues in action then: the National League, the American Association, and the upstart Players’ League. Since 1901, the season high is 11 — done three times, in 1924, 1929, and 1979. Ten triple plays were turned in 1882, 1884, 1910, 1914, and 1921. The most recent season with nine triple plays was 1944. The most recent season with eight triple plays was 1965. The most triple plays turned by one team in a season is three. Here’s the list: 2021 Yankees, 2016 White Sox, 1979 Red Sox, 1979 A’s, 1965 Cubs, 1964 Phillies, 1924 Red Sox, 1911 Tigers. In the 19th century, it was also done four times (1890 Rochester/AA, 1886 Brooklyn/AA, 1885 NY Giants/NL, 1882 Cincinnati/AA).
History of the SABR Triple Plays Database: The triple play list was developed by Chuck Rosciam and Frank Hamilton as conceived by David Smith. Over the years, the list has been updated and corrected by many volunteer researchers since and digitized in its current format by members of the Baseball Records Committee, including Sean Lahman, Frank Hamilton, Chuck Rosciam, Frank Vaccaro, and Jacob Pomrenke. A list of known contributors is below.
Minor League Triple Plays: Click here to access a list of all known triple plays in minor-league baseball, compiled by SABR member Chuck McGill.
Corrections or updates: SABR members are invited to help fill in any missing or incorrect data. Please contact Sean Lahman or Jacob Pomrenke.
Contributors: David Arcidiacono, Priscilla Astifan, David Ball, Cliff Blau, Sam Clements, John Delahanty, Peter Garver, Raymond Gonzalez, Steve Gietschier, Joe Haardt, Frank Hamilton, Frank Vaccaro, Kevin Harlow, Ed Hartig, Richard Hershberger, Troy Kirk, Sean Lahman, John Lewis, Don Luce, Mike Lynch, Bob McConnell, Wayne McElreavy, Bill Nowlin, Jacob Pomrenke, Bob Richardson, Chuck Rosciam, John Schwartz, Ron Selter, James A. Smith, Stew Thornley, Richard Topp, Frank Vaccaro, and Jim Weigand, among many others.
Baseball was first introduced to Japan as a school sport in 1872 by American Horace Wilson,  an English professor at the Kaisei Academy in Tokyo. The first organized adult baseball team, called the Shimbashi Athletic Club, was established in 1878.
At a match played in Yokohama in 1896, a team from Tokyo's Ichikō high school convincingly defeated a team of resident foreigners from the Yokohama Country & Athletic Club. The contemporary Japanese language press lauded the team as national heroes and news of this match greatly contributed to the popularity of baseball as a school sport.  Tsuneo Matsudaira in his "Sports and Physical Training in Modern Japan" address to The Japan Society of the UK in London in 1907 related that after the victory, "the game spread, like a fire in a dry field, in summer, all over the country, and some months afterwards, even in children in primary schools in the country far away from Tōkyō were to be seen playing with bats and balls." 
Professional baseball in Japan first started in the 1920s, but it was not until the Greater Japan Tokyo Baseball Club (大日本東京野球クラブ Dai-nippon Tōkyō Yakyū Kurabu) a team of all-stars established in 1934 by media mogul Matsutarō Shōriki, that the modern professional game found continued success—especially after Shōriki's club matched up against an American All-Star team that included Babe Ruth, Jimmie Foxx, Lou Gehrig, and Charlie Gehringer. While prior Japanese all-star contingents had disbanded, Shōriki went pro with this group, playing in an independent league.
The first Japanese professional league was formed in 1936, and by 1950 had grown big enough to divide into two leagues, the Central League and the Pacific League, together known as Nippon Professional Baseball (NPB). It is called Puro Yakyū ( プロ野球 ) , meaning professional baseball. The pro baseball season is eight months long, with games beginning in April. Teams play 144 games (as compared to the 162 games of the American major league teams), followed by a playoff system, culminating in a championship held in October, known as the Japan Series. 
Corporations with interests outside baseball own most of the teams. Historically, teams have been identified with their owners, not where the team is based. However, in recent years, many owners have chosen to include a place name in the names of their teams the majority of the 12 Nippon Professional Baseball (NPB) teams are currently named with both corporate and geographical place names.
Minor leagues Edit
Much like Minor League Baseball in the United States, Japan has a farm system through two minor leagues, each affiliated with Nippon Professional Baseball. The Eastern League consists of seven teams and is owned by the Central League. The Western League consists of five teams and is owned by the Pacific League. Both minor leagues play 80-game seasons. 
Differences from Major League Baseball Edit
The rules are essentially those of Major League Baseball (MLB), but technical elements are slightly different: The Nippon league uses a smaller baseball, strike zone, and playing field. Five Nippon league teams have fields whose small dimensions would violate the American Official Baseball Rules. 
Also unlike MLB, game length is limited and tie games are allowed. In the regular season, the limit is twelve innings, while in the playoffs, there is a fifteen-inning limit (games in Major League Baseball, by comparison, continue until there is a winner). Additionally, due to power limits imposed because of the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami, the 2011 NPB regular season further limited game length by adding a restriction that no inning could begin more than three hours and thirty minutes after the first pitch.
NPB teams have active rosters of 28 players, as opposed to 26 in MLB (27 on days of scheduled day-night doubleheaders). However, the game roster has a 25-player limit. Before each game, NPB teams must designate three players from the active roster who will not appear in that contest.  A team cannot have more than four foreign players on a 25-man game roster, although there is no limit on the number of foreign players that it may sign. If there are four, they cannot all be pitchers nor all be position players.  This limits the cost and competition for expensive players of other nationalities, and is similar to rules in many European sports leagues' roster limits on non-European players.
In each of the two Nippon Professional Baseball leagues, teams with the best winning percentage go on to a stepladder-format playoff (3 vs. 2, winner vs. 1). Occasionally, a team with more total wins has been seeded below a team that had more ties and fewer losses and, therefore, had a better winning percentage. The winners of each league compete in the Japan Series.
Strike of 2004 Edit
On 18 September 2004, professional baseball players went on a two-day strike, the first strike in the history of the league, to protest the proposed merger between the Orix BlueWave and the Osaka Kintetsu Buffaloes and the failure of the owners to agree to create a new team to fill the void resulting from the merger. The strike was settled on 23 September 2004, when the owners agreed to grant a new franchise in the Pacific League and to continue the two-league, 12-team system. The new team, the Tohoku Rakuten Golden Eagles, began play in the 2005 season.
In Japan, high school baseball ( 高校野球 , kōkō yakyū) generally refers to the two annual baseball tournaments played by high schools nationwide culminating in a final showdown at Hanshin Kōshien Stadium in Nishinomiya. They are organized by the Japan High School Baseball Federation in association with Mainichi Shimbun for the National High School Baseball Invitational Tournament in the spring (also known as "Spring Kōshien") and Asahi Shimbun for the National High School Baseball Championship in the summer (also known as "Summer Kōshien").
These nationwide tournaments enjoy widespread popularity, arguably equal to or greater than professional baseball. Qualifying tournaments are often televised locally and each game of the final stage at Kōshien is televised nationally on NHK. The tournaments have become a national tradition, and large numbers of students and parents travel from hometowns to cheer for their local team. The popularity of these tournaments has been compared to the popularity of March Madness in the United States. 
Amateur baseball leagues exist all over Japan, with many teams sponsored by companies. Amateur baseball is governed by the Japan Amateur Baseball Association (JABA). Players on these teams are employed by their sponsoring companies and do not receive salaries as baseball players but as company employees. The best teams in these circuits are determined via the Intercity Baseball Tournament and the Industrial League National Tournament. 
The level of play in these leagues is very competitive Industrial League players are often selected to represent Japan in international tournaments  and Major League Baseball players such as Hideo Nomo (Shin-Nitetsu Sakai),  Junichi Tazawa (Nippon Oil)  and Kosuke Fukudome (Nihon Seimei),  have been discovered by professional clubs while playing industrial baseball.
Japan has won the World Baseball Classic twice since the tournament was created. In the 2006 World Baseball Classic, they defeated Cuba in the finals  and in 2009 World Baseball Classic Japan defeated South Korea in 10 innings to defend their title. 
The national team is consistently ranked one of the best in the world by the World Baseball Softball Confederation.
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Historical Events on June 7
Event of Interest
1520 Field of the Cloth of Gold meeting begins between English Henry VIII and King Francis I of France at Balinghem, France
Victory in Battle
1527 Pope Clement VII surrenders to Emperor Charles V's armies
- Peace of Andres Treaty ends the stalemated Italian War of 1542–1546 of France and the Ottoman Empire against the Holy Roman Empire and England, as well as England's dispute with Scotland and Ireland England declares war on France
Event of Interest
1614 2nd parliament of King James I, dissolves passing no legislation
Event of Interest
1628 English King Charles I ratifies the Petition of Rights
Great Plague of London
1665 Great Plague of London: Samuel Pepys writes in his diary of houses marked with a red cross in London's Drury Lane, meaning somebody inside is infected with the plague and must be locked in for 40 days or until death
Drivers of death carts in London would go street-to-street extolling people to "bring out your dead" at the height of the London plague outbreak in 1665
Event of Interest
1753 British Museum founded by an Act of Parliament with royal assent from King George II (opens in 1759)
Event of Interest
1769 American frontiersman Daniel Boone ascends Pilot Knob, setting sight on the fertile hunting grounds of what is now known as the Bluegrass Region of the State of Kentucky [exact date disputed]
United States Declaration of Independence
1776 Richard Lee (Virginia) moves Declaration of Independence in Continental Congress
- Anti-Catholic riot in London, hundreds die French peasants stone the Army in Grenbole, an event known as the Day of the Tiles Jews of Pesaro Italy fast commemorating murder of Jews Thomas Malthus publishes the first edition of his influential 'Essay on the Principle of Population' (date of the unsigned preface) David Thompson reaches the mouth of the Saskatchewan River in Manitoba Asian cholera reaches Quebec, brought by Irish immigrants, and kills about 6,000 people in Lower Canada Hawaiian Declaration of Rights is signed Workmen start laying track for Market Street Railroad, San Francisco Skirmish at Union Church, Virginia (Peninsular) General B. Butler orders William Mumford hanged after he removed and destroyed US flag on display over New Orleans Mint The United States and Britain agree to suppress the slave trade
Battle of Interest
1863 Battle of Milliken's Bend, Lousisiana, Jefferson Davis' home burnt
1864 Abraham Lincoln renominated for US President by the Republican Party
- 1,800 Fenian raiders are repelled back to the United States after they loot and plunder around Saint-Armand and Frelighsburg, Quebec
Event of Interest
1893 Gandhi's first act of civil disobedience.
- Social Democracy of America party holds 1st national convention, Chicago Boer general Christian de Law occupies British rail depot at Roodewal British Open Men's Golf, St Andrews: Englishman J.H. Taylor wins title for 3rd time beats runner-up Harry Vardon by 8 strokes Norway dissolves union with Sweden (in effect since 1814) Chicago Cubs score 11 runs in 1st inning of 19-0 drubbing of New York Giants off future Baseball Hall of Famers Christy Mathewson and Joe McGinnity worst beating in Giants franchise history Famous Cunard passenger liner Lusitania launches Cleveland Industrial Exposition opens
Event of Interest
1909 Mary Pickford makes her screen debut at the age of 16
- St Pius X encyclical "On Indians of South America" US army tests 1st machine gun mounted on a plane 1st verifiable ascent of main summit of Denali (Mt McKinley), North America's highest mountain led by Hudson Stuck and Harry Karstens
Event of Interest
1916 Theodore Roosevelt declines nomination of the Progressive Party and throws his support behind Republican Charles Evans Hughes
- Melvin Jones and a number of other Chicago businessmen found Lions Clubs International, now the largest service organization in the world The British detonate mines beneath the German-held Messines Ridge, in the Ypres area Sette giugno: Riot in Malta four are killed. 56th Belmont: Earl Sande aboard Mad Play wins in 2:18.8
Event of Interest
1924 George Leigh-Mallory disappears 775' from Everest's summit
- Swedish government of Ekman forms Margaret Bondfield becomes 1st British female cabinet minister (Labour) Vatican City becomes a sovereign state 62nd Belmont: Earl Sande aboard Gallant Fox wins in 2:31.6 At 47, Brooklyn pitcher Jack Quinn becomes oldest player in MLB history to record an extra-base hit (double) as the Dodgers beat Chicago Cubs, 9-2
Event of Interest
1933 George Balanchine and Kurt Weills' ballet chanté "7 Deadly Sins" premieres in Paris
Event of Interest
1936 Charles "Lucky" Luciano is convicted on 62 counts of compulsory prostitution
Very Rare Photo of the Supreme Court
1937 Time magazine publishes the second of the only two known photos taken of the United States Supreme Court in session
- 1st play telecast with original Broadway cast, "Susan & God" Boeing 314 Clipper flying boat 1st flown (Eddie Allen)
Event of Interest
1938 The Douglas DC-4E makes its 1st test flight
Event of Interest
1939 George VI and Elizabeth become the 1st king and queen of Britain to visit USA
US Golf Open
1941 US Open Men's Golf, Colonial CC, Fort Worth: In sweltering heat, Craig Wood wins by 3 strokes ahead of runner-up Denny Shute
Event of Interest
1941 73rd Belmont: Eddie Arcaro wins aboard Whirlaway to claim first of 2 Triple Crowns
Event of Interest
1941 Chemists Archer John Porter Martin and Richard L. M. Synge give the first demonstration of partition chromatography (separation of mixtures) at a meeting of the Biochemical Society held at the National Institute for Medical Research, Hampstead
Victory in Battle
1942 Battle of Midway ends: Admiral Chester Nimitz wins 1st World War II naval defeat of Japan
Major League Baseball Team History
From the first generation of baseball fans that tore open newspapers to gobble up box scores through the generations who gathered around the radio and then the television, to today's fans who get scores on their cell phones or over the Internet &ndash the question has never changed &ndash "How did my team do today?"
The answer to that question immediately defines quality of life for a baseball fan. The days when the answer is "my team won" just seem brighter and better than other days. Love of a baseball team runs deep and is not diminished by time or distance. Why is that?
Perhaps it is because we take a team to heart at a young age, when players and teams seem like Olympian heroes to be worshipped and admired. We lose that child-like wonderment about everything, but not about our baseball teams.
Or perhaps because the game is played every day for six months, and fortunes of the team become as much a part of our life as those of friends and family. Baseball, like life, is full of difficult day-to-day challenges, with regular disappointments to which we can all relate and occasional bursts of success we can celebrate. What else explains rational people jumping for joy or crying in despair at the fortunes of a group of 25 men they don't know and who don't know them?
Baseball teams are wrapped in the mythic personality of their accomplishments and histories. No matter their recent accomplishments, the Red Sox are the slow-footed gaggle of hulky right handed hitters looking to dent the Green Monster, while the Cardinals are a model of pitching and defense. The Giants are a haven for sluggers and the Mets continually produce quality hurlers. The Cubs are the lovable losers with the grand ballpark and the Dodgers are always playing home-grown talent. And the Yankees &ndash well, they are always the Yankees.
Baseball Almanac pays tribute to the thirty teams of today and their predecessors &ndash all of whom are the torch bearers of the game's history. Their accomplishments can be found here, their championship seasons, and the great performances which define the personality and measure the success of a team.
Each team also has its share of famous firsts, fabulous feats, record setters, and histories that need to be told. Baseball Almanac is dedicated to the preservation of each team's unique history and we hope you enjoy our look at the Major League franchises.
"The kid who was lucky enough to come up with a real league ball or a store-bought bat automatically became team captain." - Ford Frick in Games, Asterisks, and People: Memoirs of a Lucky Fan (Ford C. Frick, Crown Publishers, 1973, Page 64)
Record Books for Midsummer Classic Games
On July 6, 1983, Fred Lynn came to bat in the third inning with the bases loaded against Atlee Hammaker. The only All-Star grand slam in history was hit that moment and eight records were set.
Mickey Mantle (1954-1960), Joe Morgan (1970-1977) and Dave Winfield (1982-1988) are the only three players in All-Star history to each bat safely in seven back-to-back All-Star games. The Commerce Comet played in both the 1960 All-Star Game and the 1960 World Series, each of which was played in New York City, prompting baseball fan Tom Bowen to wonder how many times has a club hosted both an All-Star Game and World Series in the same year. His research found:
|Teams Who Hosted All-Star Game & World Series|
(In the Same Season)
|Year||Host||All-Star Game||World Series|
|1939||New York Yankees||1939 All-Star Game||1939 World Series|
|1946||Boston Red Sox||1946 All-Star Game||1946 World Series|
|1949||Brooklyn Dodgers||1949 All-Star Game||1949 World Series|
|1954||Cleveland Indians||1954 All-Star Game||1954 World Series|
|1959||Los Angeles Dodgers||1959 All-Star Game||1959 World Series|
|1960||New York Yankees||1960 All-Star Game||1960 World Series|
|1965||Minnesota Twins||1965 All-Star Game||1965 World Series|
|1970||Cincinnati Reds||1970 All-Star Game||1970 World Series|
|1977||New York Yankees||1977 All-Star Game||1977 World Series|
|1997||Cleveland Indians||1997 All-Star Game||1997 World Series|
Stan Musial holds the All-Star record for most games as a pinch hitter with ten games (a record) and ten pinch-hit at-bats (another record)!
Chapman was born in Beaver Dam, Kentucky, and raised in Herrin, Illinois.  He broke into the major leagues in 1912 with the Cleveland team, then known as the Naps. 
Chapman led the American League in runs scored and walks in 1918. A top-notch bunter, Chapman is sixth on the all-time list for sacrifice hits and holds the single season record with 67 in 1917. Only Stuffy McInnis has more career sacrifices as a right-handed batter. Chapman was also an excellent shortstop who led the league in assists once. He batted .300 or better three times, and led the Indians in stolen bases four times. In 1917, he set a team record of 52 stolen bases, which stood until 1980. He was hitting .303 with 97 runs scored when he died. He was one of the few players whom Ty Cobb considered a friend. 
There was conjecture that 1920 was going to be Chapman's last year as a pro baseball player. Shortly before the season began, Chapman married Kathleen Daly, who was the daughter of a prominent Cleveland businessman. Chapman had indicated he was going to retire to devote himself to the family business into which he was marrying, as well as to begin a family. 
On August 16, 1920, Chapman was struck in the head and killed by a pitch thrown by Carl Mays during a game against the New York Yankees at the Polo Grounds.  At the time, pitchers commonly dirtied balls with soil, licorice, and tobacco juice, and scuffed, sandpapered, scarred, cut, or spiked them, giving a "misshapen, earth-colored ball that traveled through the air erratically, tended to soften in the later innings, and, as it came over the plate, was very hard to see."  Mays threw with a submarine delivery, and it was late afternoon. Eyewitnesses recounted that Chapman did not react to the pitch at all, presumably unable to see it. The sound of the ball striking Chapman's skull was so loud that Mays thought it had hit the end of Chapman's bat he fielded the ball and threw to first base. 
Home plate umpire Tommy Connolly, noticing that Chapman was bleeding from his left ear, screamed towards the stands for a doctor. Tris Speaker, who had been on deck, rushed to Chapman, as did several players from each team. Carl Mays merely stood on the mound. Chapman tried to walk, but his knees buckled. As he was helped off the field by his teammates, he mumbled "I'm all right tell Mays not to worry. ring. Katie's ring," before falling unconscious.   Chapman was taken to St. Lawrence Hospital, a short distance from the Polo Grounds where he died about 4:40 AM from brain damage. His pregnant wife Katie, summoned from Cleveland by phone, arrived at 10:00 a.m. and fainted on learning he had died.  
Thousands of mourners attended Chapman's funeral at the Cathedral of St. John the Evangelist in Cleveland  and he was buried at Lake View Cemetery. 
Cleveland players wore black armbands for the remainder of the season. 
A bronze plaque was designed in Chapman's memory, funded by donations from fans, was hung at League Park and was moved to Cleveland Stadium when the Indians moved there in 1946. Sometime in the early 1970s, however, it was removed for unknown reasons.   In 2007 it was refurbished and made part of Progressive Field's Heritage Park, which includes the Cleveland Indians Hall of Fame and other exhibits from the team's history. Chapman had been inducted into the team Hall of Fame in 2006, part of the first new induction class since 1972.   
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World Series, in baseball, a postseason play-off series between champions of the two major professional baseball leagues of North America: the American League (AL) and the National League (NL), which together constitute Major League Baseball.
The World Series began in 1903 after the cessation of hostilities between the NL and the newly formed AL. Boston (AL) defeated Pittsburgh (NL) five games to three in a best-of-nine-game series. Attendance was just over 100,000, and the players’ shares of receipts were slightly more than $1,000 each. In 1904 the New York Giants (NL) refused to play Boston, again the AL champion but the series resumed in 1905 and continued annually until 1994, when a prolonged players’ strike forced its cancellation that year. A seven-game format has been standard since 1922. Beginning in 1955, one player has been voted the Most Valuable Player of each series, a great honour in baseball. Montreal and Toronto were granted major league teams in 1969 and 1977 respectively—the first Canadian teams in major league baseball Toronto’s World Series win in 1992 was the first victory for a non-U.S. team. The New York Yankees of the AL have won the most series.
The World Series name has been applied to several baseball championships of lesser import, including the Junior World Series, played between champions of the International League and the American Association (both American professional minor leagues), and the Little League World Series, an annual event with international representation for teams of boys and girls 9 to 18 years old.