Cavalry

Cavalry

Since the earliest days of Warfare mankind has sought to use domestic animals to increase his manoeuvrability on the battlefield and increase the shock impact of his troops. Early use of horsemen was common and most armies of the Ancient World such as those of Alexander the Great and the Romans had considerable numbers of Horsemen. With the development of Stirrups and the refinement of the spear into a specific horseman's weapon, the lance, the shock role of cavalry increased. The Mongol armies were made up completely of horsemen. This role involved into a warrior caste with the Samurai in Japan and the medieval Knight in Europe, as the numbers of cavalry on the battlefield increased and new weapons forced them to adopt new tactics these warrior Castes became a thing of the past but even today the idea of cavalry retains a certain panache. By the time of the Napoleonic wars vast numbers of cavalry were seen on Europe battlefields and large numbers were also used in the American Civil War and in the Indian Wars. The First World War was the death knell for horse mounted troops and by the end of it despite their use with some success in the Middle East Theatre the horseman was gone from the modern battlefield. The opening stage of the Second World War did see Polish cavalry used against German tanks but by then most cavalry had converted to tanks and armoured vehicles. Retaining essentially the same roles they had on the battlefield from ancient times those of Reconnaissance and Shock assault the cavalry of the modern battlefield is seen in armoured units around the world many retaining traditions and symbolism from their horse mounted days. The psychological impact of the cavalry charge has now been replaced by the psychological impact of fast moving heavy armoured vehicles, just as if not even more terrifying for the soldier on the receiving end.

4th Cavalry Regiment (United States)

The 4th Cavalry Regiment is a United States Army cavalry regiment, whose lineage is traced back to the mid-19th century. It was one of the most effective units of the Army against American Indians on the Texas frontier. Today, the regiment exists as separate squadrons within the U.S. Army. The 1st Squadron of the 4th Cavalry's official nickname is "Quarterhorse", which alludes to its 1/4 Cav designation. The 3rd Squadron of the 4th Cavalry's official nickname is "Raiders". Today, the "1st Squadron, 4th Cavalry", "2nd Squadron, 4th Cavalry", "4th Squadron, 4th Cavalry", and "6th Squadron, 4th Cavalry" are parts of the 1st Infantry Division, while the "3rd Squadron, 4th Cavalry" serves as part of the 25th Infantry Division. On 23 September 2009, the "4th Squadron, 4th Cavalry" officially stood up at Fort Riley, Kansas as part of the 1st "Devil" Brigade, 1st Infantry Division. On 28 March 2008, the "5th Squadron, 4th Cavalry" officially stood up at Fort Riley, Kansas as part of the 2nd "Dagger" Brigade, 1st Infantry Division. The 6th Squadron, 4th Cavalry served as part of the recently inactivated 1st Infantry Division, 3rd "Duke" Brigade, at Fort Knox, Kentucky. The 1st and 5th Squadrons are assigned to their respective Brigade Combat Teams in the 1st Infantry Division. The 4th Squadron was inactivated in October 2015. The 3rd Squadron is assigned to the 3rd Brigade Combat Team in the 25th Infantry Division.


Cavalry

In the United States Army, cavalry units were originally horse-mounted soldiers. After World War I, the cavalry began to transition to a mechanized method. During World War II, cavalry soldiers sometimes fought in tanks and sometimes on the ground. The last horse-mounted charge was made against the Japanese in the Philippines on January 16, 1942.

In 1950, the Cavalry Branch became part of the Armor branch, but the term was retained to designate certain units with historical lineage to cavalry units. During the war in Vietnam, units using helicopters were designed Air Cavalry while those in tanks were called Armored Cavalry. The United States Cavalry, or U.S. Cavalry, was the designation of the mounted force of the United States Army from the late 18th to the early 20th century. The Cavalry branch was absorbed into the Armor branch in 1950, but the term "Cavalry" remains in use in the U.S. Army for certain armor and aviation units historically derived from cavalry units. Originally designated as United States Dragoons, the forces were patterned after cavalry units employed during the Revolutionary War. The traditions of the U.S. Cavalry originated with the horse-mounted force which played an important role in extending United States governance into the Western United States after the American Civil War. Immediately preceding World War II, the U.S. Cavalry began transitioning to a mechanized, mounted force. During World War II, the Army`s cavalry units operated as horse-mounted, mechanized, or dismounted forces (infantry). The last horse-mounted cavalry charge by a U.S. Cavalry unit took place on the Bataan Peninsula, in the Philippines. The 26th Cavalry Regiment of the Philippine Scouts executed the charge against Japanese forces near the village of Morong on 16 January 1942.[1] The U.S. Cavalry branch was absorbed into the Armor branch as part of the Army Reorganization Act of 1950. The Vietnam War saw the introduction of helicopters and operations as an airborne force with the designation of Air Cavalry, while mechanized cavalry received the designation of Armored Cavalry. Today, the 1st Cavalry Division maintains a detachment of horse-mounted cavalry for ceremonial purposes.


Cavalry History

With his dry, flaxen hair flowing about his ears, Custer raised himself in his stirrups, held his saber outthrust, and cried to the men from Michigan, 'Come on, you Wolverines!'
At a trot, at a gallop, the bombastic Custer, leading his Wolverines four length in front, reined his horse straight across the open land on a collision course as the ground gave off a muffled rumble where thousands of pounding hoofs were churning pasture lands into a mulch of dirt and crushed clover.
Finally, in a great tangle of men and horses, the Yankees and Rebels smashed head-on. 'So sudden and violent was the collision,' according to an eyewitness, 'that many of the horses were turned end over end and crushed their riders beneath them.'
The impact of Custer's troopers halted the front of the Confederate column, and in a swirl of milling and yelling, sabers twirled and hacked, turned red, and twirled again, pistols and carbines spurted at point-blank range and frantic horses, squealing with the wildest kind of terror, hit and kicked and threw their riders into a melee of grinding hoofs
With Custer and his Wolverines chopping at the front of the Confederate column, other Yankee squadrons flailed in on the flank - in some instances the momentum of their attack carried horses and riders clear through massed Rebel troopers - and the fighting broke into a general free-for-all.
After a frenzy of saber slashing. the contestants called it a day. The Confederates retired to the woods whence they had come, leaving the field of combat to the Yankee horsemen. 1

This classical cavalry engagement took place one hundred thirty-eight years ago at the Battle of Gettysburg. It typifies the view of the hard fighting horse cavalry of old and may bring forth any number of reminiscent images for those who pause to reflect on this bygone era. Today however, the days of the horse mounted charge are over. Its demise was due to advances of weapons technology, advances that were underscored when the horse finally met its match in the trenches, barbed wire, and raking machine gun fire of World War I. And though the mission of the cavalry is still very much alive in armies around the world, the day of performing that vital combat task from the back of a horse is left in an era that has passed into history. It is wise not to forget that history, though - both as a rich part of our western culture, and as a source of lessons that remain valuable for the track, wheel, and helicopter mounted cavalry of today.

But what is cavalry? What does it do, and how does it do it? And how has this bold mission come to us through the ages? Historically, cavalry is a combat arm that utilizes the characteristics of mobility, firepower, and shock action - employed at decisive times and places - to sway the course of battle. It's flexibility and daring also make it the force of choice for the essential tasks of reconnaissance and security. It is able to operate detached from the main force for limited periods of time and is frequently used in economy of force roles, responsible for large areas and often fighting grossly outnumbered so that main force elements may be moved or massed elsewhere. 2

Cavalry units usually exhibit speed in excess of the preponderance of the main force and are likewise able to execute a higher level of maneuver. Early cavalrymen rode horses. Later ones sit atop mechanized or wheeled vehicles, or fly in helicopters. Regardless of the mode of transportation, there are several threads common to them all. These mounted units are normally expensive to outfit and take longer to train than other forces. They can be relatively vulnerable and are difficult to replace. But when employed properly in battle, they can do their job like no other. 3

The missions associated with the cavalry are summarized in Figure 1. The list is broad the missions demanding. But to gain some familiarity with these capabilities is to come to a level of the understanding of the essence of cavalry itself.

TYPICAL CAVALRY MISSIONS

Reconnaissance/Counter-reconnaissance
Security
-screen
-guard
-covering force
-rear area protection
Raid
Feint/Deception
Attack
-direct
-turning movement
-envelopment
Counterattack
Exploitation
Pursuit
Delay
Defend


Reconnaissance has long been a basic tenet of cavalry, and cavalry is uniquely suited to this purpose. From the earliest days, commanders have dispatched mounted forces toward their enemy to discover his strength and disposition. Examples abound, but arguably the most remarkable was the bold ride taken around the Army of the Potomic by the legendary Confederate horseman, J. E. B. "Jeb" Stuart in the spring of 1862. General Stuart led 1,200 members of his brigade on a reconnaissance covering more than one hundred miles around the Union forces commanded by General George B. McClellan then laying siege to the Confederate capitol at Richmond, Virginia. Stuart fought hard for the intelligence he collected, destroying outposts and defeating the ineffective and fragmented Union cavalry in a series of skirmishes as he went. He provided General Lee the information needed, reporting that McClellan's right flank was "in the air" lacking the protection of natural barriers or man-made fortifications. This successful cavalry reconnaissance allowed Lee to launch the campaign known as "The Seven Day's Battles" breaking the Union siege of Richmond and driving the enemy into a retreat followed by evacuation from the Peninsula later that summer. 4

Counter-reconnaissance is a role not frequently discussed, but one that is critical. Just as it is essential for us to gain as much information as possible about the enemy, it is equally as important to deny him similar information about ourselves. A significant part of the duties of the European cavalry units engaged in World War I was to defeat German reconnaissance efforts. At Haelen in Belgium and on the Lys River in France, whole battles were prosecuted for the sole purpose of stopping enemy reconnaissance. 5 Counter-reconnaissance is routinely an integral responsibility during the conduct of security operations, but is highlighted separately because of its unique importance.

Security operations include screening, guarding, covering, and providing rear area protection. 6 All security operations involve gaining and maintaining contact with enemy forces in order to give early warning to the main force as well as to deliver some level of protection to the force. The screen is only expected to rout enemy reconnaissance elements while a guard force will be relied on to defend from main force enemy units if necessary. Covering forces operate some distance from the main body and will be expected to develop the situation and shape the battlefield to facilitate subsequent engagement by the friendly main force units. 7

One of the greatest examples of a superbly successful security mission was that conducted by General John Buford with two brigades of his First Cavalry Division just outside of Pennsylvania town of Gettysburg. Buford was operating in advance of the main Union force when he noted the potential military significance Gettysburg. He occupied the high ground to the northwest of the town and sent word back to the Union Army suggesting a quick move to the defensible terrain around the town. When the Confederate divisions advanced on the town, Buford's cavalry fought three times their number and held them off for over two hours long enough for reinforcements to arrive and fight the initial Confederate assaults to a standstill, buying enough time for the Union Army to occupy and prepare defensive positions on the hills south of town. The results of the battle that followed are well known. 8

A cavalry capability often exploited in the past was the raid. The idea of the cavalry raid was to rapidly thrust deep into the enemy's rear to destroy or disrupt some high value target. The objectives of these quick and devastating strikes were often supply depots, bridges, railroad yards, or artillery concentrations. The cavalry raid was a frequent tactic during the American Civil War, but one of its greatest masters of the art was British Colonel T.E. Lawrence in his operations against Turkish forces in Arabia and Palestine during the First World War. Lawrence's mounted Arabian forces found huge success in disrupting communications along the Wejh Railway and capturing the key installations such as the port of Aqaba, or threatening the Turkish rear. 9

Attack is not frequently considered in relation to cavalry anymore, and though it is a form of combat that presents special hazards to cavalry forces, it also portends great rewards if skillfully executed. Obviously direct frontal assault is normally inadvisable, but cavalry units can frequently be successful in executing a turning movement or envelopment. The charge of the Swedish cavalry under Gustavus Adolphus during the Thirty Years War is an example of the first, and Hannibal's use of cavalry at Cannae an illustration of the second.

The Swedish King, Gustavus Adolphus, was the first to use cavalry in a modern sense, integrating its action with that of his infantry and artillery. At the Battle of Breitenfeld in 1631, the Swedish position weakened by enemy successes on his left, Gustavus dispatched his cavalry to turn the flank of the opposing Imperial formation. He then used the enemy's own captured artillery to shift the main axis of combat ninety degrees. The enemy was defeated and broke in disarray losing 13,000 and all of its artillery and baggage train. 10

Similarly, Hannibal triumphed at the Battle of Cannae in 216 B.C. by fighting a large portion of his cavalry through the Roman right flank and subsequently falling on his enemy's rear with a fierce cavalry attack while his infantry continued to press the front. This classic envelopment destroyed the large Roman army of some 70,000 while preserving the 26,000 man Carthaginian force to fight again. 11

Now let's move to a mission that has to rank as a premier capability, the counterattack. An immensely capable counterattacking force is cavalry. This arm can reposition rapidly anywhere on the battlefield in order to swiftly deliver a devastating blow to the flank of any successful enemy advance. The genius of Napoleon saw clearly the utility of cavalry in this role and used it extensively to reverse enemy successes. At the Battle of Marengo on 14 June 1800, Napoleon's army was vastly outnumbered by the forces of the Austrian Empire. A heavy advancing enemy column, 6.000 strong, was rolling through the French lines toward victory when the French cavalryman Kellerman, with 800 mounted soldiers, charged the exposed Austrian flank. The cavalry drove the enemy from the field, capturing 2,000 prisoners. "This great achievement won the victory for the French." 12

With the same élan and boldness, cavalry has been the consistent executor of exploitation and pursuit operations. The use of cavalry to exploit the initial successes of main element forces and then ruthlessly pursue routed enemy forces dates back to ancient times. As early as the 6th century B.C., the Persian cavalry was used primarily to pursue broken and retreating opponents. Throughout history cavalry continued to be the arm to exploit infantry success by driving hard through breaches created in enemy lines to wreak havoc and then pursue a routed enemy offering him only destruction when he sought retreat. 13

When the tables are turned, and we find ourselves in a retrograde movement with the enemy in unrelenting pursuit, it is welcome to have a force defending or delaying the enemy as he attempts to overwhelm our withdrawal. The most striking example was Marshall Ney's magnificent defensive operation behind Napoleon as he retreated from Russia in 1812. Fighting constant attack from Russian cavalry and irregular forces as well as the bitter cold of the Russian winter and the demoralization of the Grande Armee, Ney fought and maneuvered his cavalry tenaciously until the remnants of the once great French military machine were extricated from Russia. 14

A final role to contemplate is the use of cavalry in counter guerrilla operations or more comprehensibly in many aspects of what is now termed low intensity conflict. Certainly on the Great Plains of the United States, cavalry forces were effectively utilized, with varying degrees of success, in containing "the Indian problem." Here horse soldiers protected frontier settlements and scouted for free roaming bands of Indians to return them to reservations, or attacked and destroyed Indian groups deemed too difficult to deal with in any lesser fashion. 15

Likewise, in Vietnam cavalry was used in a counter guerilla role. Here the battle was against the Viet Cong irregulars as well as North Vietnamese units infiltrated from North Vietnam. The great innovation in Vietnam was the incorporation of "air cavalry" into an arsenal which included the mechanized vehicles that had replace the horse after World War I.

So a third dimension, an air dimension, was added to cavalry operations and doctrine. Initially postulated by the tests with the 11th Air Assault at Fort Benning, Georgia, the idea was honed in battle by the 1st Cavalry Division in Vietnam. The result was the emergence of the concept of finding an elusive enemy by aerial reconnaissance, developing the situation with the insertion of a cavalry rifle platoon, and then reinforcing as necessary with ground cavalry or infantry forces air-lifted into battle to achieve victory. 16 Armored cavalry operations were also conducted with great success against enemy infantry in Vietnam. 17

Cavalry, then, has always been a critical arm of warfare. For centuries daring soldiers carried out these important missions mounted on horseback. In the 20th Century, the horse became un-survivable on the modern battlefield, yet the need for cavalry forces has not diminished. The need for the cavalry remains, and the spirit engendered by the bold horse soldiers of old, remains as well. We should not forget this proud culture as an essential ingredient of our American heritage, nor should our military forces overlook the lessons that reside in that historic experience.


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War With Mexico

In July of 1845, General Taylor’s force began moving to Texas. Most of his force embarked from New Orleans bound for Corpus Christi, Texas. The Second Dragoons were the exception, choosing to proceed over land from Fort Jessup to Corpus Christi. They made the 501-mile march in 32 days, and reported to General Taylor in fine shape, contrary to some predictions from others outside the command. In March of 1846 General Taylor was ordered to move his force to the Rio Grande River in order to repel any invasion. General Taylor’s force departed Corpus Christi to establish a base of operations at Point Isabel. The vanguard of his force, led by a squadron from the Second Dragoons and Major Ringold’s Flying Artillery, subsequently moved to establish Fort Texas along the Rio Grande River. This position was directly across from the Mexican city of Matamoras, near what is now Brownsville, Texas.

The Dragoons began an aggressive schedule of mounted patrols along the Rio Grande. Acting as the eyes and ears for General Taylor and maintaining security along the flanks, the Regiment became well acquainted with the area and some of the local ranchers. On 25 April 1846 General Taylor received word that the Mexican Army was crossing the river above and below his position. Two companies of Dragoons moved to the lower crossing while Companies C and F went to reconnoiter the upper crossing. The next day one of the Company’s native guides returned to camp claiming that the units had been attacked by a large force of Mexicans near La Rosia and that “all had been either cut to pieces or captured.” The two companies of Dragoons, numbering 60 men, were surrounded and ambushed by over 500 Mexican cavalry. They sustained nine dead and two wounded. Thornton was pinned to the ground when his horse was shot dead in mid-air as he cleared an eight-foot wall of chaparral in an attempt to charge through the enemy. The entire command, now under Captain William Hardee, was captured and taken to Matamoras. This battle gave President Polk the excuse he needed to invade Mexico.

During a counter-attack at Palo Alto on 8 May 1846, the Regiment was largely responsible for forcing the enemy to the east and exposing its left flank. The next day at Resaca de la Palma, General Taylor ordered Captain Charles A. May to silence a battery of Mexican cannons that had been blocking the Matamoras Road. May said, “I’m going to charge them,” as he led his squadron(Companies D and E) through the American infantry lines and into the fire from the Mexican artillery. May overwhelmed the battery and captured a Mexican general. May’s order of the day, “Remember your Regiment and follow your officers,” has become the Regiment’s motto.

Another hero of the Mexican war was Sergeant Jack Miller, whose small patrol was ambushed by a force five times its number near Monclova in November 1847. The Dragoons were going for their carbines when Miller shouted: “No firing, men! If 20 Dragoons can’t whip 100 Mexicans with the saber, I’ll join the Doughboys and cart a fence rail all my life.” The Dragoons charged and killed six Mexicans, wounded thirteen, and captured seventy. Casualties in Miller’s unit were limited to only one man wounded and three mounts lightly scratched.

On 29 June 1846, Colonel Twiggs, the First Colonel of the Regiment, recently promoted to Brigadier General after ten years in command, passed command of the Regiment to his successor, Colonel Harney. Harney remained in command for the duration of the Mexican War. Congress later awarded Twiggs a sword with a jeweled hilt and a gold scabbard as a tribute to his gallantry at Monterey. The Regiment’s service proved invaluable in every major campaign of the war, and it is one of perhaps two regiments in the Army to have had elements participate in every battle. The Regiment added 14 green and gray campaign streamers to the Regimental standard during the war with Mexico.


March 7 - Battle of the Salt River. This engagement is one of the last battles of the Apache Wars. A detachment from the 10th took part in an expedition against the remaining Apache Indians. The battle is fought in area north of Globe, Arizona. Sergeant William McBryar is awarded the Medal of Honor for his actions in pursuit of Apache warriors after the battle.

Regiment transfers to the Department of Dakota. After serving twenty years at various posts in the Southwest, the 10th Cavalry was transferred to the Department of Dakota. Under the command of Col. John Mizner the regiment serves at vrious posts in Montana and the Dakotas.

World War I General John "Black Jack" Pershing, commands a company from Fort Assinniboine in north central Montanas as a young lieutenant. His nickname came from his time with the unit. During that time he led an expedition to the south and southwest to round up and deport a large number of Cree Indians to Canada.

By 1898 the Indian Wars are over and the 10th Cavalry has earned a distinguished record during this period. Thirteen enlisted men and six officers from all four of the Buffalo Soldier regiments (infantry as well as cavalry) will be awarded the Medal of Honor.


9th Cavalry Regiment (1866-1944)

The 9th Cavalry was one of the original six regiments of the regular U.S. Army set aside for black enlisted men. These were authorized by Congress in the act of July 28, 1866 reorganizing the army for post-Civil War service, mainly against native peoples in the West. Colonel Edward Hatch, an officer with no military experience prior to the Civil War but who distinguished himself as the commander of an Iowa cavalry regiment during the rebellion, was the 9th’s first commander. Initial recruiting efforts centered on New Orleans and vicinity. By February 1867, twelve companies were organized and on their way to Texas.

The regiment participated in numerous frontier campaigns, against the Comanche, the Ute, and most notably the Apache between 1877 and 1881. In the early 1880s it also engaged in efforts to restrain settlers seeking to take up land in Indian Territory before that area was legally open. In the 1870s the regiment was involved in the El Paso Salt War and in the 1890s it participated in efforts to restore order in the wake of the Johnson County, Wyoming Cattle War (1892) and railroad labor disputes (1894). Colonel Hatch remained in command until his death at Fort Robinson, Nebraska in April 1889. Forty-four of its soldiers were killed in action during this period, 28 against the Apaches.

Eleven members of the regiment received the Medal of Honor for actions between 1870 and 1890. Sergeant Emanuel Stance was the first in 1870. He was followed by Sergeant Thomas Boyne, Private John Denny, Corporal Clinton Greaves, Private Henry Johnson, Sergeant George Jordan, Sergeant Thomas Shaw, Sergeant Augustus Walley, Sergeant Moses Williams, Corporal William Wilson, and Sergeant Brent Woods. All of the awards were for bravery in combat against Indians, eight against Apaches.

The first black regular army chaplain, Henry Vinton Plummer, served with the 9th from his appointment in 1884 until his dismissal from the service ten years later for conduct unbecoming an officer. Lieutenant John Alexander, the second black graduate of the U.S. Military Academy, served with the regiment from his graduation in 1887 until his death in 1894, as did the third, Lieutenant Charles Young, from 1889 to 1894. Benjamin O. Davis Sr. served with the regiment as an enlisted man and was mentored by Charles Young before receiving his commission in 1901. In 1940 Davis became the first African American promoted to General in the U.S. Army.

The 9th had three men killed in combat at San Juan Hill, Cuba, during the war against Spain in 1898. It also fought in the Philippines between 1900 and 1902, losing two men. The regiment returned to the islands in 1907 and remained there until 1909. It remained on the Mexican border during World War I, except for another period in the Philippines. The 9th was still a horse cavalry regiment when it was assigned to be part of the 2nd Cavalry Division in October 1940. It saw no action in World War II and was deactivated in North Africa in May 1944. Its personnel were transferred to other Army service units.


History Of Cavalry – Early, Middle and Modern History

CAVALRY, a term formerly restricted to military forces mounted on horseback, is now often broadened to include mechanized and armored, and sometimes airborne, forces. With the decline of the horse in warfare these have assumed many of the characteristics and missions of the earlier cavalry. The basic characteristics are mobility and shock, which often are decisive in battle. Other than attack, missions include reconnaissance, counterreconnaissance, delaying action, raid, and pursuit.

The term “qavalry,” which is derived from the Latin word for horse (caballus), came into general use during the 16th century to denote all types of mounted troops. These included dragoons, who rode to battle but usually fought dismounted light cavalry, or hussars, used primarily for reconnaissance, screening, and liaison missions and heavy cavalry (sometimes called cuirassiers), used primarily for shock effect. These same distinctions persist in mechanized and armored cavalry. The “armored infantryman,” or Panzer grenadier (German), for example, is descended from the dragoon, riding to battle in an armored personnel carrier but usually fighting on foot. Of the major armies of the world, only the Russian and the Chinese Communist retain any major quantities of horse cavalry.

Early History.

The development of cavalry followed the breeding of horses large and sturdy enough to carry an armed man. By about 772 b. c. lancers and mounted bowmen had begun to appear in the Assyrian army, but the Persians were apparently the first to employ horsemen with bow or javelin as a principal arm. The first use of cavalry in appreciable strength in western Europe seems to have been Leuctra, Greece, in 371 b. c., when Epaminondas used it to secure his flanks. Philip II of Macedon (reigned 359-336 b. c.) was the first to employ cavalry as an arm of decision. Fixing the enemy by frontal attack with a powerful infantry phalanx, he would destroy his fore with a cavalry charge against a flank. Inheriting Philip’s army and traditions, Alexander the Great (reigned 336-323 B.C.) scored notable successes with cavalry against the Persians and Indians.

Since the fighting in this era devolved mainly on the front rank of compact formations, a few horsemen riding bareback, holding rejns and gripping with their knees, might penetrate the first rank or so, only to be pulled from their horses by men in the interior of the phalanx. Since horses were relatively scarce and valuable, only the wealthy nobility could afford them, thus limiting the numbers of cavalry but also early establishing it as an elite arm.

Although Rome was slow to develop efficient cavalry, bitter experience at the hands of Hannibal (particularly at Cannae in 216 b.c.) finally prompted Roman leaders to correct the deficiency. Roman cavalry drove Hannibal’s horsemen from the field at Zama, North Africa, in 202 b. c. and helped effect the fall of Carthage.

Saddles, then stirrups, appeared in the first centuries of the Christian era and increased the effectiveness of cavalry. The Goths probably used both in annihilating a Roman army at Adrianople in Asia Minor in 378 a. d.

Cavalry survived for a time, as Roman civilization survived, under the Byzantine Empire. But in the west the rise of the feudal system, wherein warfare was the province of the nobility, produced such a reliance on armor for mount and rider that horsemen ceased to have the mobility expected of cavalry.

Europe was thus virtually defenseless as the Mongols under Genghis Khan in the early 13th century approached with a mounted army whose horsemen roamed far and deep, maneuvering swiftly in widely separated columns and concentrating unexpectedly on the enemy’s flank or rear. Only troubles back in Asia spared European civilization from the Golden Horde of mounted Mongols.

The European cavalryman, meanwhile, had become obsessed with his superiority to the point of folly. Lacking maneuverability, he was ripe for defeat by infantry using powerful new weapons, such as the longbow, dramatically unleashed at the Battle of Crecy, France, in 1346, and old weapons such as the pike, which the Swiss phalanx emplaced in the ground at an angle to stop horsemen. These developments sent cavalry into sharp decline.

Middle History.

The advent of weapons utilizing gunpowder during the 16th and 17th centuries halted cavalry’s decline, both by augmenting cavalry with artillery and by substituting the pistol for the lance. Advancing at a trot in columns several ranks deep, the horsemen would fire by rank at close range, then wheel to the rear to reload.

Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden (reigned 1611-1632) improved on this method by training his cavalry to advance at a gallop, with only the front rank firing, then applying the sword. During this same period, the French introduced a cavalryman who fought dismounted, the dragoon. Frederick the Great of Germany (reigned 1720-1786) further improved the performance of cavalry by ceaseless training and iron discipline.

Napoleon Bonaparte in the early 19th century developed the concept of coordination between a cavalry screen, which covered the advance of his army, and a cavalry reserve. The screen having located the enemy, Napoleon fixed his foe with light cavalry and advance guard, then massed his artillery to blast a hole through which the cavalry reserve poured, slashing the enemy irresistibly and running down escapees. There were notable failures, as at Eylau in 1807, when the cavalry was committed too soon at Leipzig in 1813, when it was too weak and at Waterloo in 1815, when rough terrain and an uphill charge muted the effect. But until the campaign in Russia in 1812 eliminated many of Napoleon’s vet» eran troops and horses, French cavalry in close coordination with artillery and infantry was the scourge of Europe.

The agricultural and financial exhaustion of Europe after the Napoleonic Wars, followed by development of artillery and small arms effective at long range, again produced a sharp decline in the effectiveness of cavalry. The Charge of the Light Brigade (1854) at Balaklava in the Crimean War was celebrated more for losses and romance than for achievement.

Americans in the U. S. Civil War and the Indian Wars provided cavalry a final grand employment, yet the use was less in the traditional sense of overwhelming charge than in lesser missions such as reconnaissance, screening, delaying, and raids. Seldom was cavalry effective against the improved weapons of entrenched infantry thus, in deliberate attack cavalry usually fought dismounted.

Modern History.

Cavalry accomplished little either in the Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871) or the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905), yet European nations at the start of World War I had large bodies of cavalry. It was organized in separate divisions on which the belligerents depended for exploiting a break in the enemy lines, in the manner of Napoleon, after vastly improved infantry and artillery weapons had blasted a path through the lines.

As it turned out, cavalry was reduced to impotence by the unexpected advantage the new weapons afforded the defense and by the impediments presented by long lines of entrenchments, barbed wire entanglements, and ground churned by bombardment, along with the use of aviation for surveillance. Refusing to fight dismounted, most cavalry was frittered away in small segments. Only in two cases were there decisive cavalry engagements. In Palestine three divisions of British cavalry poured through after infantry and artillery had blasted a gap in the Turkish right, and on the eastern front a single German cavalry division delayed the Russian advance long enough for the Germans to concentrate and win the Battle of Tannenberg.

Of the major combatants in World War I, all but the Germans failed to discern the twilight of cavalry and the ascendancy of tanks. In Britain, France, and the United States, old-time cavalrymen fought to retain cavalry in some form, either augmented by light tanks and armored cars or transported to battle in vans, while relegating the tank to an infantry-support role.

German World War II campaigns against Poland, the Low Countries, and France demonstrated incontestably the end of the horse as a decisive instrument of war, its place assumed by tanks and self-propelled artillery operating in close conjunction with aerial bombardment. Both Russia and the western Allies subsequently used armored divisions much as the Germans had done, and in many cases mechanized cavalry units with light tanks and armored cars. The latter were useful for reconnaissance and for screening the flanks of larger forces.

Of the horse cavalry units operating in Europe at the start of World War II, those of Poland and France were swiftly annihilated. Russian cavalry lost heavily against German armor, but the Russians learned to infiltrate their horsemen through thinly stretched German lines and launch surprise attacks against rear installations. Both the Chinese and Japanese used large bodies of mounted troops, but they seldom were decisive. The United States lost a cavalry regiment of the Philippine Scouts in defense of Bataan. Of two cavalry divisions in the U. S. Army at the start of the war, one was disbanded while the other, the 1st Cavalry Division, left its horses behind to fight in the Pacific as an infantry unit.

In the U. S. Army and most other major armies following World War II, the names, traditions, missions, and internal organization (squadrons and troops) of the old cavalry units passed to armored regiments and divisions and to mechanized reconnaissance units. All have mobility, while armor provides shock and the ability to pursue and destroy. During the war in Vietnam in the 1960’s, the United States organized the 1st Cavalry Division (Airmobile), which by means of the helicopter achieved the old cavalry characteristics of quick strikes against enemy flanks and rear. But as the utility and availability of the helicopter increased, regular infantry divisions took on some of the same capabilities, so that true air cavalry, separate and distinct from other arms, was yet to emerge.


11th Armored Cavalry Regiment History

When a new Commander takes possession of the Regimental Color, he has assumed the full responsibility of that Color and all that it implies as the essence of the Regiment.

Grant of Arms

By authority of the Secretary of War the Institute of Heraldry United States Army who gives grants, has assigned unto the 11th Cavalry Regiment the arms following.

Shield Or within an orle sable in chief two bolos saltirewise gules hilted azure and in base a cactus proper.

Crest On a wreath of colors or and sable a horse&rsquos head erased sable.

Organized in 1901, the regiment saw service in the Philippines, which is indicated by the crossed bolos with red blades and blue hilts.

The regiment&rsquos excellent service on the Mexican border in 1916 is represented by the cactus.

The regimental colors black and yellow, are shown by the shield and the black border within the edge and by the color of the crest.

Under the provisions of AR 600-40, Par. 46: the blazonry and description of arms here given having been registered and recorded in the Institute of Heraldry, United States Army are affirmed from this date and hereafter may borne, shown and advanced by the 11th Cavalry Regiment as safe property of said arms.

In testimony whereof this Grant of Arms is given under my hand at the Institute of Heraldry, U.S. Army, Camron Station, in the City of Alexandria in the Commonwealth of Virginia this the twenty fifth day of the August in the year of Our Lord one thousand nine hundred and twenty one and in the independence of the United States of American one hundred and forty five.

The line, &ldquo. . . United States Army are affirmed from this date and hereafter may borne, shown and advanced by the 11th Cavalry Regiment as safe property of said arms.&rdquo Indicates the strong value placed up this symbol of the Regiment.

It was traditional that all new troopers to the Regiment would, by his/her own hand, sew on their first shoulder insignia (patch) onto their uniform. This represents the personal attachment of the Regiment&rsquos insignia and a personal affirmation of honor and devotion to protect that symbol as &ldquosafe property&rdquo.

History of the
11th Cavalry &ndash 11th Armored Cavalry Regiment

ESTABLISHMENT OF THE 11th CAVALRY
2 February 1901

After attaining victory in the Spanish-American War of 1898, the United States found itself with the new task of Territorial Administration. In large part, the job fell to the regular Army. Found to be undermanned for the mission, Congress increased the standing army by five infantry and five cavalry Regiments. Thus, on 2 February 1901, the 11th Cavalry Regiment was the first of five newly formed cavalry regiments. The 12th, 13th, 14th and the 15th Cavalry Regiments followed.

On 11 March 1901, the first recruits of the new Regiment reported for training at Fort Myer, Virginia. A combat tested veteran of the Civil War, who also gave distinguished service in the Spanish-American War, was tasked with raising the Regiment and serving as its first commanding officer. The 11th Cavalry was exceptionally fortunate in having the standard set by such an experienced and resourceful officer as Colonel Francis Moore FIRST COLONEL OF THE REGIMENT.

&ldquoI have 400 men who have never seen a horse, I have 400 horses who have never seen a man, and I have 15 Officers who have never seen a man or a horse.&rdquo
First training report rendered by the Major of the 3d Squadron,
15th Cavalry, as it was being organized on Mindanao, Philippine Islands, in 1901. This sentiment was fully shared throughout the newly formed 11th, 12th, 13th, 14th and 15th Cavalry regiments.

THE FIRST UNIFORM

The headgear is referred to as a &ldquocampaign hat.&rdquo It resembled a fedora with a crease down the middle of the crown. The shirt was made of dark blue chambray and the trousers were a buff-colored khaki with canvas leggings over low cut boots. A dark blue coat was used for dress occasions while a khaki coat was issued for field use. When mounted, the trooper wore brass rowel spurs and gauntlets (riding gloves). His holstered .38 caliber double action Colt revolver hung opposite a Model 1860 Light Cavalry Saber on a canvas &ldquoMills&rdquo belt that held double rows of cartridges for his rifle. Slung from his saddle was a tin cup, a flat circular canteen, a blue blanket, and the famous smokeless powder Krag-Jorgensen magazine fed carbine.

The typical soldier began his day with &ldquoStable Call&rdquo at 0500 hrs. Tasked with caring for his mount before addressing his own needs, the Trooper rubbed down, fed and exercised his horse. Next came routine with which soldiers of today can readily identify. This involved close order drill, athletics, guard duty, and honing the skills of scouting and patrolling. Afternoons were devoted to mounted drill, one of which was known as the &ldquoMonkey Drill.&rdquo This maneuver required the Trooper to ride bareback hands free while putting his horse through various maneuvers. The pay of the 11th Cavalry soldier in the early 1900&primes was $13.00 a month for a six-day workweek. Sunday was a day off when Troopers received mounted passes that permitted riding through the countryside.

PHILIPPINE ISLANDS
(Philippine Campaign Medal)

By June 1901, the Regiment was fully activated, although its three Squadrons were separated to posts in Missouri, Vermont and Virginia. Six months of intensive training culminated with orders to depart for the Philippines to assist in putting down the insurrection there. First Squadron traveled overland and embarked out of San Francisco to Hawaii, Wake Island and then on to the Philippines. Second and Third Squadrons left by way of New York on the U.S.A.T. Buford* (Army Transport Service), arriving in Manila after a sixty-one day voyage which included passage through the Suez Canal.

[*General John Buford, 1848 &ndash 1863, West Point Class of 1848, Civil War US Cavalry commander. He led the Union forces in the epic 14-hour Battle of Brandy Station 9 June 1863. In this, the largest cavalry action in the Western Hemisphere, the classic saber and pistol clash involved a total of over 17,000 horse-mounted troopers. He fought the Confederate Cavalry to a draw for the first time in the Civil War in an action that began the rise to dominance of the Union horsemen. At Gettysburg, the battle that saw more Americans die than any other in history, he dismounted his 2500 troopers and held off a Confederate Division for over two hours until reinforcements arrived. This action stopped the Confederate advance and forced the battle onto ground of his own choosing.]

Future President William Howard Taft was the First Civil Governor of the Philippines and his governorship of the islands was a high mark in colonial administration for any nation. He had First Squadron dispatched to Samar, Second Squadron to Batangas Province, and Third Squadron to northern Luzon. Experiencing jungle warfare for the first time, the Regiment fought dismounted. The name of Private Clarence L. Gibbs, KIA 4 March 1902, was the first to be placed on the 11th Cavalry Roll of Honor.

By May 1902, working from satellite camps attached to larger base camps, daily patrols of Troopers had swept the countryside of guerrillas and the Regiment began the transition to garrison operations. The tropical climate, illness and guerrilla warfare had depleted the Regiment to one-third strength.

Orders home were issued in March 1904 and within a month, the Regiment was scattered around the United States once more. HQ and Second Squadron were at Ft. Des Moines, Iowa First Squadron was assigned to the historic cavalry post at Ft. Riley, Kansas Third Squadron was split between Ft. Sheridan, Illinois and Jefferson Barracks, Missouri. It was not until summer 1905 that the Regiment served together for the first time when it was consolidated at Ft. Des Moines.

CUBAN PACIFICATION
(Army of Cuban Pacification Medal 1906-09)

The Cuban republic was established after the 1898 Spanish-American War. In 1901 the Platt Amendment, a rider attached to the Army Appropriations Bill of 1901, stipulated the conditions for U.S. intervention in Cuba that virtually made the island an U.S. protectorate. Under the terms of this bill the United States established &ndash and retains to this day &ndash a naval base at Guantanamo Bay.

In mid-1906 Cuban internal strife caused the United States to invoke the Platt Amendment and send troops to the island nation in an attempt to restore order. William Howard Taft, now Secretary-of-War, sent his Philippine Insurrection veterans, the experienced 11th Cavalry Regiment under the command of Colonel Earl D. Thomas, 2nd COLONEL OF THE REGIMENT.

Pulled from its annual maneuvers at Fort Riley, Kansas, First Squadron returned to Fort Des Moines while the balance of the regiment left for Cuba by way of Newport News. The regiment arrived in Havana ahead of its horses on 16 October 1906 and set up base camp outside the city. A storm with hurricane force winds struck the next day, destroying the camp and battering the ships still at sea so badly that over 200 mounts were killed. The troopers of the day quickly recovered and assumed control of western Cuba. Regimental Headquarters was established in Pinar del Rio after a 29 hour/110 mile force march by Troop F. The mission of the 11th Cavalry was to &lsquoshow the flag&rsquo by conducting mounted patrols throughout the countryside between the villages. While in Cuba the regiment was joined by its new commander, Colonel James Parker, 3rd COLONEL OF THE REGIMENT.
&ldquoGalloping Jim&rdquo (the longest serving Colonel) continued peacekeeping operations during the Regiment&rsquos two-year stay, demonstrating to the natives that the US Army&rsquos Cavalry was ready for any and all eventualities. Although conflict is at times inevitable, the 11th Cavalry Regiment best serves the country when it commands respect and thereby averts war through a show of strength. This will be repeated time and again throughout the history of the regiment.

By 1909, the political situation in Cuba was stable and the regiment was recalled. In late February, they began hurried preparations to embark out of Havana and return to the United States. The reason for the hasty departure became apparent when, upon arriving once again in Newport News, Virginia on 1 March 1909, they were immediately ordered to Washington D.C. by train. Arriving in a severe blizzard, the troopers of the 11th Cavalry Regiment nonetheless readied them selves for the task at hand. The next day, 4 March 1909, the Blackhorse assumed a place of honor in the inaugural parade of their old friend and now President, William Howard Taft.

After the inauguration of President Taft, the regiment settled into garrison life at its new home at Fort Oglethorpe, Georgia. The reprieve was short lived however, as in early 1911 the regiment was deployed to the Texas/Mexico border in response to Mexico&rsquos internal political turmoil, which threatened to spill into the United States. This would prove to be the first of many border postings for the 11th Cavalry. The crisis soon eased and the regiment returned to Fort Oglethorpe in November.

LUDLOW MASSACRE

In May 1914, the 11th Cavalry found itself on the go again, this time to Colorado. A violent-marred coal strike had culminated in the so-called Ludlow Massacre in which several miners along with two women and eleven children were killed in the small town of Trinidad. Secretary of War Lindley M. Garrison dispatched the Regiment to perform the difficult and delicate task of restoring order to a community torn by rioting in the wake of the massacre. It was even more frustrating for our troopers considering many came from the coal mining villages of West Virginia and they knew what life is like working under these conditions. The troopers of the 11th Cavalry performed their sensitive mission well, winning praise for their &ldquopoise, justness, absolute impartiality, and effectiveness.&rdquo The Regiment returned to Georgia in January 1915 for a stay of a little over a year.

FOOD FOR MARCHING ORDER

The menu of the troops must not be forgotten. In every game of chance, there is always a possible element of disappointment, but there is neither chance nor disappointment in the matter of meals for troops. They were dealt the inevitable &ldquogovernment straight&rdquo consisting of canned baked beans, canned tomatoes, canned corn bread (&ldquoCorned Willie&rdquo), coffee and prunes. This may not sound so bad, but it did get monotonous.

THE GREAT WAR

World War I began on 28 July 1914, one month after the assassination of the heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne by a Serbian terrorist in Sarajevo, Bosnia. The United States was not immediately drawn into &ldquoThe Great War&rdquo, as it was then known. American lives were lost however, during the sinking of the British liners Lusitanian and Arabic in May and August of 1915. After hostile reactions from American citizens and vehement protests from the U.S. Government, Germany announced the cessation of unlimited submarine war. Meanwhile, events much closer to home were commanding the attention of the 11th Cavalry.

PUNITIVE EXPEDITION
MEXICO &ndash 1916
(Mexican Service Medal)

On 9 March 1916, the Mexican revolutionary &ldquoPancho&rdquo Villa raided the town of Columbus, New Mexico. President Woodrow Wilson ordered Brigadier-General John J. &ldquoBlack Jack&rdquo Pershing to lead a Punitive Expedition into Mexico to destroy Villa&rsquos rebel army. On 12 March the 11th Cavalry under the command of James Locket (4th COLONEL OF THE REGIMENT) was ordered to report to Pershing. The lead elements of the Regiment moved out that very night.

A feature of railroad troop trains is their ability for &ldquorapid&rdquo transit. At every station stop, a delegation of the Red Cross met the trains with hot coffee and sweet smiles. At El Paso, Texas the 11th Cavalry was ordered to go directly to Columbus, New Mexico to join the expedition going into Mexico. Lieutenant-Colonel Henry T. Allen led First Squadron as the forward element into that country.

The Provisional Squadron of the 11th Cavalry was formed under the command of Major Robert L. Howze. On 10 April 1916, a Villista patrol engaged Major Howze&rsquos advance guard. In the ensuing battle, the Regiment suffered its first casualties of the campaign with three wounded and Private Kirby of Troop M was killed. Trooper Kirby was buried where he fell. The Regiment had forced marched for 21 days over 571 miles. Two troops (companies) of the 10th Cavalry, the &ldquoBuffalo Soldiers&rdquo reinforced the Regiment at Parral. Cut off from their base at Colonia Dublan, the Squadron was sorely in need of re-supply. &ldquoOur animals were low in flesh. Officers had to watch their men to keep them from eating part of the corn allowance of the horses.&rdquo

THE LAST CHARGE

On 5 May 1916, the 11th Cavalry had the honor of making what proved to be the last mounted charge in regular US Cavalry history. This would be the first of a number of &lsquolasts&rsquo the 11th would undertake in its career as a regular Army unit, including the last forced march and the last mounted combat patrol. The account of the &lsquoLast Charge&rsquo was noted as follows: &ldquoThe column advanced onto the village to be found out by guards. The bugler sounded and with guidon flying on high the charge began. The troopers entered Ojo Azules with pistols firing, bugle sounding out orders, commands being screamed, and the thunder of hoofs all putting fear into the hearts of the enemy.&rdquo To the average trooper it was just, another day of service to his country.

Howze&rsquos War Diary &ndash 5 May 1916

5 May 1916 report to General Pershing: &ldquoWe made an over-night march to Ojo Azules, distance thirty-six miles. Reached here at 5:45 a.m. unfortunately one-half hour after daylight. We surprised Julia Acosta, Cruz Domingues and Antonio Angel jumped them. Had a running fight for two hours. Drove their bands into the hills between here and Carichic. Killed forty-two verified by officers captured several and some fifty to seventy-one ponies and mules. It is believed that we killed Angel, although identification not completed. We rescued a Carranza lieutenant and four soldiers just before they were to be shot. We followed the enemy, consisting of about 140, until our horses were wholly exhausted, but the chase did not stop until the enemy&rsquos left flank had been broken up entirely. In fact, those who escaped us did so as individuals. Our discovery was by Villista herd guards, which fired at our Indians, and alarmed the enemy, which ran pell mell, firing at us in their flight. The remarkable part is although the clothing of several of our men was hit not a single man was wounded, thanks to the utter surprise and confusion of the enemy. We lost three or four horses. It is needless to say that officers and men behaved as would be expected.&rdquo

The 11th Cavalry withdrew from Mexico on 5 February 1917 five days after Germany resumed a policy of unrestricted submarine warfare against American shipping on 31 January.

THE ZIMMERMAN TELEGRAM
International Intrigue affects the 11th Cavalry

1 March 1917 saw the publication of a German memorandum proposing a defensive alliance with Mexico in case of war between Germany and the United States with the proviso &ldquo&hellipthat Mexico is to recover the lost territory in New Mexico, Texas and Arizona&hellip&rdquo which caused a wave of American outrage. Alfred Zimmerman, German Foreign Secretary, had sent the coded message on 19 January, which also contained the suggestion that Mexico urge Japan to join the Central Powers, to von Eckhardt, the German Minister to Mexico. British Naval Intelligence intercepted and decoded it, giving a copy to the U.S. Ambassador to Britain on 24 February. After verification, it was released to the press 1 March. At the time, the British Navy had the German merchant fleet bottled up in the Gulf of California port of Santa Rosalia.

The United States&rsquo declaration of war on Germany, enacted by Congress on 6 April 1917, found the Regiment pausing at Ft. Bliss, Texas as part of a provisional First Cavalry Division. Due to the threat outlined in the Zimmerman telegram and the proximity of the German merchant fleet, a detachment of the 11th was stationed on the border at Camp John Beacom in Calexico, California (nearest border crossing to the German fleet) while another was stationed in the Campo area. These detachments continued border duty until 1920. Within a month new orders came and Colonel James B. Irwin (6th COLONEL OF THE REGIMENT) led the remainder of the Regiment back to Chickamauga Park, Georgia, near Ft. Oglethorpe. The next two years saw various elements of the 11th Cavalry scattered throughout the South and West.

THE QUIET YEARS

On 9 July 1919, the main body of the Regiment departed Ft. Meyer, Virginia on a transcontinental trek to a new duty station at the Presidio of Monterey, California. Second and Third Squadrons, whose troops had been scattered throughout Georgia, Wyoming, and California, soon rejoined the HQ. Here the Regiment remained for over two decades, during the &ldquoQuiet Years.&rdquo

Presidio duties included exercising horses on the beaches of Monterey, extended war maneuvers in the forests and deserts of California and summer training of ROTC personnel at Fort Lewis, Washington. In the 1930&primes, running the Citizen&rsquos Military Training Corps (CMTC) Program in Monterey was an additional requirement. In the comparatively genteel Army of the 1920&primes and 1930&primes, the Regiment&rsquos spare time was filled with unit competitions in polo and horsemanship.

THE GREAT PRESIDIO OIL FIRE
OF 1924

At 1000 hours on September 14, 1924, the 11th Cavalry once again found itself in a fight. However, this time there were no bullets involved. The Presidio of Monterey was located right next to the Tidewater-Associated Marine Terminal, an oil storage facility. One of the oil storage tanks had been struck by lightning and set on fire. The fires in the wooden oil storage tanks were soon found to be almost impossible to control and the fire spread. Those warehouses closest to the fire contained grain and hay for the horses of the Regiment. The Army began to evacuate these warehouses and the work was completed just 10 minutes before the first oil tank exploded, covering the buildings with burning oil. As the burning tanks collapsed, rivers of burning oil flowed down the streets towards Monterey Bay. The heat from the fires became so intense that people several hundred feet away were burned.

Troopers fought the fires from behind sections of wooden fencing used as shields against the heat. Ladders were placed up against the sides of the burning tanks and troopers were ordered up them to spray water directly into the tanks. Many of these troopers died when the tanks collapsed and they were thrown into the burning oil.

Five days later, when the fire had finally burning itself out, it was found that 26 men were missing from the rolls and several hundred were injured. (Through the Army Memorial Program, many streets of Monterey, California, bear the names of the men who died fighting the fire. The bravery of these troopers is still remembered today, for if the oil had been allowed to flow down onto the town of Monterey and the many wooden structures, a greater number of loss of life and property would have most certainly been greater if it was not for the 11th Cavalry.

LESSONS LEARNED: With this and other similar above ground oil storage tanks fires, lessons were learned, that have affected the oil storage procedures industry wide.

That is, due to the fixed roofing and with repeated drainage/refilling would naturally generate spacing between the oil and roofing unit. Vapors would develop and it is this, that most believed actually ignited, when the lighting struck. Lighting rods are of little value in these situations. When rainwater or the fire extinguishing water would land on top of the oil, this in time would descend as oil being lighting then water. With the tempter of the burring oil began reaching 212 degrees, the water converts to vapor expanding rapidly thus causing eruption of hot boiling burning oil.

This was not a familiar concept to the troopers who were working in good faith they treated the fire as a &ldquowood burning fire&rdquo and continued to spray water onto the tanks hoping to cool the metal/wood casing enough to contain the oil. As the heat would transfer from one tank unit across to an adjacent unit that too would reach a tempter causing that unit to likewise explode, which lead to more loss of life.

Any water accumulated from previous rains that became covered with repeated &ldquodrainage/refilling of oil&rdquo generated a layering of oil-water-oil etc., when heated, expands and explodes or in this case, oil boiled up and over the sides of the containers. There are several accounts of the storage tank casings becoming too hot and collapsing inward tossing the troopers into the vat of burning oil.

Major lesson learned is that now the &ldquotops&rdquo of these oil storage units are a floating top that does not allow the collection of vapors, distance between tanks has extended, a massive earth works have been constructed to contain the total oil within the storage unit in a designated area thus preventing expansion of the burning oil over to other units.

NOTE: Presidio Fire Station

While Brigadier General John J. &ldquoBlack Jack&rdquo Pershing (along with the 11th Cav)
was withdrawing from Mexico and the conclusion of the Punitive Expedition a
tragic fire that took the lives of Pershing&rsquos wife and three of his four children. The Presidio Fire Department was the first military fire department to be established in the United States and was staffed by a civilian fire crew. The Fire Station was one of the first Army stations equipped with automotive fire engines.

THE FIRST SHOLDER SLEEVE INSIGNATIA
(The First Patch)

The 11th Cavalry was assigned to 3d Cavalry Division August 1927 &ndash March 1933. Where they were then assigned to 2d Cavalry Division October 1933 &ndash October 1940. The 2d Cavalry Division &ldquoPatch&rdquo was the Regiments first patch worn.

THE 11TH CAVALRY
&ldquoGOES HOLLYWOOD&rdquo

During the inter-war period, Hollywood secured the 11th Cavalry to make war movies. The Regiment was involved in the making of two motion pictures, &ldquoTroopers Three&rdquo (1929) and &ldquoSergeant Murphy&rdquo (1937). The latter starred a promising young actor in his second film by the name of Ronald Reagan, himself an Army Reserve Cavalryman in Troop B, 322nd Cavalry. On May 25, 1937, he was appointed a second lieutenant in the Officers&rsquo Reserve Corps of the Cavalry. Ronald Reagan was the last US President who served as a horse mounted cavalryman and the only one to &ldquoserve&rdquo with the 11th Cavalry Regiment.

THE GOLDEN GATE BRIDGE

The Regiment participated in many ceremonies, such as marking the opening of the Golden Gate Bridge at San Francisco on 1 June 1937. The guidon was entrusted into his care as the &lsquoD&rsquo Troop guidon bearer commencing in 1935 until he left the Regiment in 1940. The guidon for &lsquoD&rsquo Troop was carried by Pvt. Hubert Brown on that day and has been donated by him to the Regiment&rsquos museum.

&ldquoHORSE TO HORSEPOWER&rdquo

The 1920&primes and 1930&primes saw the gradual introduction of armored cars, trucks and motorcycles to the Regiment, supplementing the traditional horse, wagon and pack mules. Scout cars were accepted in 1935 with the later M3A1 becoming the pre-war mainstay. Special built tractor-trailers were capable of rapidly transporting eight fully equipped Troopers with their horses to any staging point. (It was also in the late 1930&primes that the Regiment was issued the Garand M1 to replace the venerable Springfield M1903 rifle.)

In the mid-1930&primes the US Army purchased European military equipment for testing purposes. One such item was this horse drawn munitions wagon recently recovered near Camp Locket, where the Regiment was stationed. It has been restored to the original German Army forest green color just as it was used by the 11th Cavalry. The Regiment added the distinctive crossed sabers of the Cavalry.

Field maneuvers, large-scale exercises and an occasional search and rescue mission in the mountains of Southern California gave the 11th Cavalry a unique training opportunity among the Army&rsquos Cavalry Regiments. They were able to evaluate, under as-near-to battlefield conditions as possible, the efficiency of the horse in the modern army. One such rescue mission incorporated nearly every vehicle in the regimental inventory. Using motorcycle squads, Bantam scout cars (Jeeps), the M3A1 scout car, 1½-ton trucks and the age-old horse now deployed by tractor-trailer, the Troopers combed rugged mountains for two lost infantrymen. The lessons learned in the coordination of movement and the maneuverability of the various components in the successful mission were forwarded for study to Washington D.C. The information was taken to heart. Virtually every single country entering WWII had horse mounted supply, artillery and cavalry units in combat.
Over a dozen of those countries still fielded them at war&rsquos end. In April 1945, the 4th German Cavalry Division alone surrendered 16,000 horse mounted soldiers.

In 1939, General George C. Marshall became Army Chief of Staff. With war clouds looming over Europe, Marshall knew it was only a matter of time before the United States was drawn into another conflict overseas. In order to prepare the 60,000-man army, he began a program to get the men out of the barracks and into the field for a year of &ldquotoughening up.&rdquo Tent camps were to be constructed and in turn various regiments of cavalry and infantry would take to the field. By September 1940, General Marshall had convinced Congress to begin the first-ever peacetime draft beginning in September 1940. In November 1940 the field rotation for the 11th Cavalry began.

The new camps for the Regiment were constructed in San Diego and Imperial counties, near the Southern California/Mexican border. Camp Seeley, near El Centro, California and Camp Morena near Campo were built simultaneously. Camp Seeley was used for desert training, training the horses to swim with rider up (mounted) and was the location of Regiment&rsquos rifle and machine gun ranges. Camp Morena was for mountain and cold weather training. The Regiment would rotate Squadrons between the two throughout the year. It was later decided to establish a single camp suitable to house the entire Regiment at one site. Construction of Camp Lockett (named for James Lockett, 4th COLONEL OF THE REGIMENT) in Campo, where &ldquoE&rdquo Troop had been posted in 1918, began in 1941. Built by the Quartermaster Corps, it is generally acknowledged that Camp Lockett was the last designated mounted cavalry camp constructed in the U.S. Army&rsquos history. It remained a cavalry post for the 10th and 28th Regiments after the 11th gave up its horses. Today the El Centro/Camp Seeley area remains the home of the 11th Cavalry Horse Honor Guard (Historical) &ndash &ldquoThe Colonel&rsquos Own.&rdquo

Led by Harold M. Rayner, (16th COLONEL OF THE REGIMENT) the main body moved from the Presidio of Monterey to the Camp Seeley/Camp Morena duty stations. By this time, the Regiment had reverted to three troops (companies) per squadron. The Regiment&rsquos HQ, First Squadron and Provisional Squadron were based at Camp Seeley, while Second Squadron was posted at Camp Moreno. In March 1941, some 700 draftees from Illinois, Wisconsin and Michigan joined the Regiment. They were the first conscripts to ride with the Regiment.

The Regiment underwent extensive training until 7 December 1941, when the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor. On 10 December, the entire Regiment was ordered to occupy the unfinished Camp Lockett. Those units based at Camp Morena made the five-mile trek in short order. The Squadrons based at Camp Seeley commenced what became the last &ldquoForced March&rdquo in U.S. Horse Cavalry history, completing the ninety-mile march over extremely rocky, mountainous terrain in one and a half days. Once at Camp Lockett, horse-drawn artillery units occupied Camp Seeley while its rifle range continued to be used by cavalry units from Camp Lockett. Camp Morena was closed.

Immediately following the bombing of Pearl Harbor, there were wild reports of Japanese attacks on the California coast. Once at Camp Lockett, the regiment was posted along the United States/Mexico border for the fourth time in its history this time to counter the rumored threat of enemy troops landing in Baja California and marching north. Once the threat was proven to be false, the 11th Cavalry Regiment was relieved by the 10th and the 28th (horse) Cavalry and stood down to await further orders. They were supposed to ship out for Australia, but many of the troopers came down with jaundice from the yellow fever vaccinations, so they remained in California for the time being.

WORLD WAR II

The summer of 1942 found the regiment reassigned to Fort Benning, Georgia where they were inactivated as a horse mounted unit and reactivated as the 11th Armored Regiment. Even then, massive reorganization efforts within the Army shuffled various elements of the regiment around &ndash eliminated some &ndash but eventually three distinct groups emerged from the chaos:

-Headquarters & Headquarters Troop became 11th Cavalry Group Mechanized/XIII
Corps Activated 5 May 1943 at Camp Anza, California.
-First & Second Squadron became 11th Tank Battalion/10th Armored Division
-Third Squadron became 712th Tank Battalion/90th Infantry Division

&ldquoBATTLE OF THE BULGE&rdquo
The Ardennes Offensive

The Battle of the Bulge was the largest battle ever fought by the United States and was the largest land battle of World War II. Fought from 16 December 1944 to 28 January 1945, it involved more than a million men including some 600,000 Germans, 500,000 Americans, and 55,000 British. The Germans had two Armies with ten corps (equal to 29 divisions), while the Americans fielded three armies with six corps (equal to 31 divisions). The end of the battle saw US casualties as 81,000 with 19,000 killed, 1400 British casualties with 200 killed, and 100,000 Germans killed, wounded or captured.

This epic battle has the distinction of being the only one that involved all three elements of the old 11th Cavalry Regiment. The 11th Tank Battalion was defending inside the bulge while the 712th Tank Battalion was in the relief column punching its way in. The 11th Cavalry Group anchored a sector on the northern shoulder of the bulge.

712TH TANK BATTALION

The 712th landed in France on D-Day + 23, and went into combat on 3 July 1944 on Hill 122, known as &ldquothe most expensive piece of real estate in World War II,&rdquo in terms of casualties. In the 11-day battle that lasted from 3 July to 13 July, the 90th Infantry Division suffered 7,000 casualties. The 712th fought its way through France crossing the Moselle River and then the Saar River. They came back across the Saar and plunged into the Battle of the Bulge, after which they crossed the Saar again, then the Rhine River. They had broken through the Siegfried Line and were penetrating into the heart of Germany to Amberg by the time the war ended. The 712th Tank Battalion returned to the States after the war and was inactivated at Camp Kilmer, New Jersey on 27 October 1945. The unit followed a separate lineage until it was inactivated as the 95th Tank Battalion of the 7th Armored Division on 15 November 1953. The unit rejoined the 11th Armored Cavalry Regiment in October 1958.

11TH TANK BATTALION

The 11th Tank Battalion entered combat on 2 October 1944 and fought continuously until the end of the war. One of the most dramatic contests occurred in the little village of Berdorf, Luxembourg during the German Ardennes Offensive or &lsquoBattle of the Bulge.&rsquo The 11th Tank fought off relentless attacks by two entire Panzer Battalions over the course of three days. The defenders suffered only 4 dead and 20 wounded while losing only one tank and four half-tracks. They inflicted casualties of 350 known enemy dead while destroying seven tanks and three half-tracks. The gallant stand helped buy time for relief forces to move up and block any further German advance. An enemy breakthrough at Berdorf would have given the Germans a clear road to Luxembourg. One of the &lsquoForward Observers&rsquo positions was in the Berdorf Hof (Hotel), providing a clear view down the main road into the village. After the war, the 11th Tank Battalion was inactivated at Camp Patrick Henry, Virginia on 13 October 1945.

11TH CAVALRY GROUP (MECHANIZED)

The 11th Cavalry Group would be destined to carry on the Blackhorse name. Then Lt. Leonard D. Holder (37th COLONEL OF THE REGIMENT) of Troop B, 44th Squadron, was the first to land on the shores of France. This Troop was given the honor of being attached to General Dwight D. Eisenhower&rsquos headquarters to provide checkpoint security and escort duty for the remainder of the war. On 23 November 1944 the balance of the Group loaded onto a small fleet of Landing Ship Transports (LST&rsquos) and crossed the channel. The first assignment was to begin aggressive patrols across the Roer River to check enemy movements. During the Battle of the Bulge the 11th Cavalry Group held the entire sector normally occupied by a division.

ROER TO THE RHINE

When the Allied offensive resumed after the Battle of the Bulge, the 11th Cavalry Group was tasked with covering the flank of XIII Corps during the push from the Roer to the Rhine. Faced with maintaining a 32-mile long screen, the Group developed the tactic of leap-frogging squadrons through the villages along the way. Constantly in contact with the enemy, the 11th Cavalry hit the Rhine River on 5 March 1945, having inflicted 487 casualties while taking only 56 themselves. Now, with the German Army prepared to contest every single inch of territory, the Blackhorse began probing the enemy defenses with across river patrols. Crossing into the German heartland on 1 April, the 11th Cavalry resumed a flanking screen for XIII Corps. Pushing ahead, virtually cut off from other friendly units and supplies, the 11th scored bold victories as they liberated more than one thousand American POW&rsquos along with several thousand slave labors from a prison camps. The 11th Cavalry pushed on to the Elbe River, reaching it on 14 April. Orders prevented them from any further eastward movement. Rather, the unit was directed to swing north in a mopping up operation.

This thrust deep into the enemy&rsquos homeland culminated with the 11th Cavalry Group killing and wounding 632 German soldiers and capturing 6,128 prisoners. In 21 days the Blackhorse had moved 378 miles, suffered only 14 killed, and 102 wounded.

THE BLACKHORSE MEETS
THE RUSSIAN BEAR
4 May 1945

The 11th Cavalry Group had advanced at such a fast pace that they meet the III Russian Corps coming into Germany near Kunrau. Since Germany was to be divided into sectors, the 11th found them selves deep inside the Russian Occupation Zone. After a brief celebration between the two over the Allied victory, the 11th Cavalry Group withdrew to Hannover and began the task of army of occupation.

&ldquoTHE CIRCLE &ldquoC&rdquo COWBOYS&rdquo
May 1946 &ndash November 1948

Early May 1946 found the 11th Cavalry Group (Mechanized) reverting from horsepower back to horseflesh. The Group was re-designated the 11th Constabulary Regiment and reissued horses drawn from world-renowned Polish breeding stock. Likewise, the 11th Tank Battalion stateside was re-activated as the Headquarters and Headquarters Troop, 1st Constabulary Regiment. The horses were utilized, along with other various modes of transportation, to accomplish the mission of reconnaissance and surveillance of movements of the populace. The concern was the possible resuming of hostilities by fraction groups. This elite force roamed through its various sectors presenting a bearing of security, order and stability to the country. The distinctive &ldquoC&rdquo inside a circle on the helmets and shoulder patches earned the mounted Constabulary Regiments the nickname &ldquoCircle C Cowboys&rdquo and brought the distinction of being the last horse mounted combat patrols in US history. 20 September 1947 saw the 1st Constabulary Regiment inactivated with the 11th scheduled to follow 30 November 1948. Both were converted and re-designated on 30 November 1948 as the 11th Armored Cavalry Regiment and inactivated.

THE BORDER LEGION
The Cold War Heats Up
(March 1957-1964)

The 11th Armored Cavalry Regiment was reactivated 1 April 1951 and assigned to Camp Carson, Colorado. Col. Brainard S. Cook, (23rd COLONEL OF THE REGIMENT) was tasked to rebuild the Regiment from the ground up. In early 1954 the Regiment moved again, this time to Fort Knox, Kentucky where they trained reservists. The Army of the 1950&primes was a conscript force whose turnover rate affected every part of the Army. To counter this effect the Army created GYROSCOPE, a program that rotated entire units overseas instead of individuals. In mid-March 1957 the 11th Armored Cavalry Regiment &ldquoGyroscope&rsquos&rdquo to Germany, was replacing the 6th Armored Cavalry Regiment on the West German-Czechoslovakian Border. The Regimental HQ and First Battalion were sent to Straubing on the Danube River Second Battalion moved to Landshut, 35 miles northwest of Munich and Third Battalion settled in the historic city of Regensburg. The Regiment was now part of the Seventh Army and took up the peacetime mission of border surveillance. This is when 2Lt. Frederick M. Franks, Jr. (50th COLONEL OF THE REGIMENT) joined the 11th Cavalry for the first of several tours.

In May 1960 the Regiment added a separate Aviation Company, the precursor of larger aviation components to follow. In an effort to regain a sense of historical esprit de corps within the armored cavalry regiments, the Army reestablished the nomenclature from battalions and companies to the traditional terms of squadron and troops.

In late 1962, the Regiment was placed on full alert due to the Cuban Missile Crisis, and remained in the field close to the Czechoslovakian border until the crisis was averted &ndash the only time in American history that the military was placed on DEFCON 2. One other interesting fact was that Third Squadron was housed in the only &ldquofort&rdquo in Europe &ndash Fort Skelly was their home until returning stateside in 1964, when the Regiment departed Germany for Fort Meade, Maryland.

THE BLACKHORSE, BECOMES A LEGEND
VIETNAM
7 September 1966

At Vung Tau, South Vietnam, the Regiment made an amphibious landing under the command of William W. Cobb, (34th COLONEL OF THE REGIMENT) along with 3,762 troopers. Base camp was established on November 1966 and the Regiment began reconnaissance in force operations directed at suspected Viet Cong concentrations in the provinces around Saigon.

Skeptics questioned whether armor (tanks) vehicles could play an effective role in the jungles of Vietnam. The Regiment responded to those skeptics by developing innovative tactics, techniques, and procedures that established a reputation of a relentless fighter. &ldquoFind the bastards, then pile on&rdquo became a slogan, then a way of life.

Nine different Colonels would lead the Regiment during its extensive stay in country. One of the saddest days in the history of the Regiment occurred when Col. Leonard D. Holder, (37th COLONEL OF THE REGIMENT) was killed just after being in country only a few weeks. His aircraft malfunctioned after receiving small arms fire and crashed. He died a few days later from injuries. He is the only Colonel of the Regiment to have died while in command of the Regiment.

When the Tet Offensive of January 1968 began, the Regiment was ordered to Long Khanh Province, moving south towards Bien Hoa and Long Binh to restore security. The Regiment moved 80 miles at night through a contested area, arriving 14 hours after its initial alert notice. This superb demonstration of cavalry agility has become the trademark of this Regiment throughout its history. Always ready to try new ideas, the Regiment added a new element to its Air Cavalry Troop, the Aero-Rifle-Platoon (ARP). This airmobile unit was often sent to search and destroy suspected enemy in areas accessible only by air.

The summer of 1968 brought George S. Patton Jr., (39th COLONEL OF THE REGIMENT) and the 11th ACR back towards Saigon. The North was once again threatening the South Vietnamese capital. After two days of heavy fighting, the Regiment drove the enemy away from Saigon, causing heavy casualties and crushing their ability to muster a large-scale attack in the area.

August 1969 saw another innovation under the command of James A. Leach (40th COLONEL OF THE REGIMENT) when an entire Armored Cavalry Assault Vehicle (ACAV) Troop using modified M113 personnel carriers was airlifted by C130 aircraft. This enabled the unit to be in combat at night, move by aircraft in the morning and be able to re-engage the enemy at a different location by that evening. These bold maneuvers kept the enemy at bay whenever he ventured out of his Cambodian sanctuaries.

On 7 December 1969 Donn A. Starry (41st COLONEL OF THE REGIMENT) assumed command. By 28 April 1970 the Regiment was alerted to a major offensive that would finally &ldquotake-out&rdquo the North Vietnamese sanctuaries in Cambodia. The 11th ACR received just 72 hours to refit, re-supply, and move into a staging area south of the Cambodian Fishhook. This required Third Squadron, which was the farthest away at the time, to road march 145 kilometers to its assembly area.

On 1 May 1970 the Blackhorse stood ready to spearhead the Allied incursion into Cambodia. Massive air strikes by B-52&primes had already prepared the target area. Second Squadron led the attack, followed by Third Squadron while First Squadron provided rear guard security. Trailing the Regiment were elements of the First Cavalry Division and several Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) units. At 1030 on 1 May 1970 the Blackhorse crossed into Cambodia.

The Regiment was ordered to force-march 40 kilometers further north to capture the City of Snoul. Within the given 48 hours they reached the city and attacked with incredible ferocity on 5 May, reminiscent of those mounted cavalrymen charging into Ojo Azules, Mexico after Pancho Villa in 1916. Then Major Frederick M. Franks (50th COLONEL OF THE REGIMENT), Second Squadron&rsquos S3, joined in an assault on an enemy anti-aircraft position, when a NVA grenade landed near him. Colonel Starry burst into motion and actually dove into Franks trying to knock him out of the way of the blast. Major Frank&rsquos life was spared with his chicken plate (flack vest), but his left foot was a total mess. Colonel Starry hadn&rsquot worn his chicken plate that day &ndash if he had, he would have only been scratched. Starry remains the only Colonel of the Regiment to date to have been wounded while in Command. With Snoul secured and 148 enemy killed, the Blackhorse began a systematic search of the surrounding area. Colonel Starry turned over the reigns of the Blackhorse to John L. Gerrity, (42nd COLONEL OF THE REGIMENT) on 22 June 1970. The Regiment had captured or destroyed massive amounts of supplies and equipment depriving the enemy of desperately needed succor.

On 7 March 1972 Second Squadron was the last of the Regiment to be deactivated, bringing to a close the Regiment&rsquos 5 ½ years in Vietnam. As the Blackhorse troopers left Vietnam Wallace H. Nutting, (43rd COLONEL OF THE REGIMENT) told them &ldquoWe have all been privileged to ride together with the Blackhorse in the cause of freedom. There is much on which we can look with pride. Stand tall in the saddle. Allons!&rdquo

The Blackhorse went home from the toughest, most agonizing conflict that has ever engaged American soldiers on foreign soil. Whatever the notation of the war&rsquos outcome that enters into the history books, it will be said that: &ldquoThe Blackhorse troopers have performed with estimable devotion to duty and unsurpassed gallantry. It was the Regiment&rsquos finest hour.&rdquo

Grant of Shoulder Sleeve Insignia

As authorized by the Secretary of the United States Army, gives grants and assigns unto the 11thArmored Cavalry Regiment the Shoulder Sleeve Insignia following.

Description: On a shield 2 ¾ inch (6.99cm) in width overall divided diagonally from upper right to lower left, the upper portion red and the lower portion white, a rearing black horse facing to the left all within a 1/8 inch (.32cm) black border.

Symbolism: The colors red and white are the traditional cavalry colors and the rearing black horse alludes to the &ldquoBlack Horse&rdquo nickname of the 11th Armored Cavalry Regiment.

Background: This insignia was approved on 1 May 1967.

Under the provisions of title 18 United States Code Section 101-104 the Shoulder Sleeve Insignia here given having been registered and recorded in the Institute of Heraldry United States Army are reaffirmed from this date and hereafter may borne, shown and advanced by the 11th Armored Cavalry Regiment as safe property of said insignia.

In testimony whereof these letters are given under my hand of the City of Alexandria in the Commonwealth of Virginia this first day of May in the year of Our Lord one thousand nine hundred and sixty seven and in the Independence of the United States of American one hundred and ninety one.

Colonel, Adjutant General&rsquos Corps
Commanding

The 11th ACR initially enter the Republic of Vietnam under regimental status and not authorized a shoulder sleeve insignia. Due to mission requirements and operations as an independent unit, the Chief of Staff, General Harold K. Johnson, in February 1967,
authorized the warring of a distinctive patch.
1st. Medal of Honor Recipient
YANO, RODNEY J. T.
Rank and organization: Sergeant First Class, U.S. Army, Air Cavalry Troop, 11th Armored Cavalry Regiment. Place and date: Near Bien Hao, Republic of Vietnam, 1 January 1969. Entered service at: Honolulu, Hawaii. Born: 13 December 1943, Kealakekua Kona, Hawaii. Citation: Sfc. Yano distinguished himself while serving with the Air Cavalry Troop. Sfc. Yano was performing the duties of crew chief aboard the troop&rsquos command-and-control helicopter during action against enemy forces entrenched in dense jungle. From an exposed position in the face of intense small arms and antiaircraft fire he delivered suppressive fire upon the enemy forces and marked their positions with smoke and white phosphorous grenades, thus enabling his troop commander to direct accurate and effective artillery fire against the hostile emplacements. A grenade, exploding prematurely, covered him with burning phosphorous, and left him severely wounded. Flaming fragments within the helicopter caused supplies and ammunition to detonate. Dense white smoke filled the aircraft, obscuring the pilot&rsquos vision and causing him to lose control. Although having the use of only 1 arm and being partially blinded by the initial explosion, Sfc. Yano completely disregarded his welfare and began hurling blazing ammunition from the helicopter. In so doing he inflicted additional wounds upon himself, yet he persisted until the danger was past. Sfc. Yano&rsquos indomitable courage and profound concern for his comrades averted loss of life and additional injury to the rest of the crew. By his conspicuous gallantry at the cost of his life, in the highest traditions of the military service, Sfc. Yano has reflected great credit on himself, his unit, and the U.S. Army.
2nd. Medal of Honor Recipient
WICKAM, JERRY WAYNE
Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Army, Troop F, 2d Squadron, 11th Armored Cavalry Regiment. Place and date: Near Loc Ninh, Republic of Vietnam, 6 January 1968. Entered service at: Chicago, Ill. Born: 19 January 1942, Rockford, Ill. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Cpl. Wickam, distinguished himself while serving with Troop F. Troop F was conducting a reconnaissance in force mission southwest of Loc Ninh when the lead element of the friendly force was subjected to a heavy barrage of rocket, automatic weapons, and small arms fire from a well concealed enemy bunker complex. Disregarding the intense fire, Cpl. Wickam leaped from his armored vehicle and assaulted one of the enemy bunkers and threw a grenade into it, killing 2 enemy soldiers. He moved into the bunker, and with the aid of another soldier, began to remove the body of one Viet Cong when he detected the sound of an enemy grenade being charged. Cpl. Wickam warned his comrade and physically pushed him away from the grenade thus protecting him from the force of the blast. When a second Viet Cong bunker was discovered, he ran through a hail of enemy fire to deliver deadly fire into the bunker, killing one enemy soldier. He also captured 1 Viet Cong who later provided valuable information on enemy activity in the Loc Ninh area. After the patrol withdrew and an air strike was conducted, Cpl. Wickam led his men back to evaluate the success of the strike. They were immediately attacked again by enemy fire. Without hesitation, he charged the bunker from which the fire was being directed, enabling the remainder of his men to seek cover. He threw a grenade inside of the enemy&rsquos position killing 2 Viet Cong and destroying the bunker. Moments later he was mortally wounded by enemy fire. Cpl. Wickam&rsquos extraordinary heroism at the cost of his life were in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit upon himself and the U.S. Army.
3rd. Medal of Honor Recipient
FRITZ, HAROLD A.
Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Army, Troop A, 1st Squadron, 11th Armored Cavalry Regiment. Place and date: Binh Long Province, Republic of Vietnam, 11 January 1969. Entered service at: Milwaukee, Wis. Born: 21 February 1944, Chicago, 111. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Capt. (then 1st Lt.) Fritz, Armor, U.S. Army, distinguished himself while serving as a platoon leader with Troop A, near Quan Loi. Capt. Fritz was leading his 7-vehicle armored column along Highway 13 to meet and escort a truck convoy when the column suddenly came under intense crossfire from a reinforced enemy company deployed in ambush positions. In the initial attack, Capt. Fritz&rsquo vehicle was hit and he was seriously wounded. Realizing that his platoon was completely surrounded, vastly outnumbered, and in danger of being overrun, Capt. Fritz leaped to the top of his burning vehicle and directed the positioning of his remaining vehicles and men. With complete disregard for his wounds and safety, he ran from vehicle to vehicle in complete view of the enemy gunners in order to reposition his men, to improve the defenses, to assist the wounded, to distribute ammunition, to direct fire, and to provide encouragement to his men. When a strong enemy force assaulted the position and attempted to overrun the platoon, Capt. Fritz manned a machine gun and through his exemplary action inspired his men to deliver intense and deadly fire, which broke the assault and routed the attackers. Moments later a second enemy force advanced to within 2 meters of the position and threatened to overwhelm the defenders. Capt. Fritz, armed only with a pistol and bayonet, led a small group of his men in a fierce and daring charge, which routed the attackers and inflicted heavy casualties. When a relief force arrived, Capt. Fritz saw that it was not deploying effectively against the enemy positions, and he moved through the heavy enemy fire to direct its deployment against the hostile positions. This deployment forced the enemy to abandon the ambush site and withdraw. Despite his wounds, Capt. Fritz returned to his position, assisted his men, and refused medical attention until all of his wounded comrades had been treated and evacuated. The extraordinary courage and selflessness displayed by Capt. Fritz, at the repeated risk of his own life above and beyond the call of duty, were in keeping with the highest traditions of the U.S. Army and reflect the greatest credit upon himself, his unit, and the Armed Forces.

&ldquoTHE FRONTIER OF FREEDOM&rdquo
THE FULDA GAP
1972 &ndash 1994

On 17 May 1972 the 14th Armored Cavalry Regiment furled its colors and was reflagged as the 11th Armored Cavalry Regiment. The Regiment once again unfurled its colors in Germany. This time it was at the famous Fulda Gap. The Regiment assumed a new, two-fold mission defending the Fulda Gap against a possible Warsaw Pact attack while also conducting day-to-day surveillance of 385 kilometers of the Iron Curtain dividing East and West Germany. The Regiment relieved the inactivated 14th Armored Cavalry Regiment and joined V Corps &ndash &ldquoThe Victory Corps.&rdquo

The Regimental mission in the General Defense Plan (GDP) was to strongly reinforce the United States Army Europe (USAEUR) as the covering force for V Corps. The importance of the Fulda Gap is that it offers to any attacker from the east the shortest and most direct route across the middle of West Germany. A successful thrust through the Fulda Gap, aimed at seizing the Rhine River crossings at Mainz and Koblenz, would sever West German and NATO forces defending it.

As so often in the Regiment&rsquos history, it had to disperse its squadrons. Located at Downs Barracks in the City of Fulda were the Regimental Headquarters and First Squadron, known as &ldquoIronhorse.&rdquo Second Squadron, known as &ldquoEaglehorse,&rdquo was stationed at Daley Barracks in the spa City of Bad Kissingen. Third Squadron, known as &ldquoWorkhorse,&rdquo established its new home at McPheeters Barracks, Bad Hersfeld. Fourth Squadron, or &ldquoThunderhorse,&rdquo was in Fulda, at Sickels Army Airfield, where aviation elements were stationed. Fourth Squadron grew to become one of the largest aviation units in the Army with 74 helicopters. A comprehensive effort to upgrade/modernize the Regiment&rsquos various installations was begun by Crosbie Saint, (47th COLONEL OF THE REGIMENT). The &ldquoQuality of Life&rdquo program made living conditions more suitable for the Regiment.

Modernization brought with it organizational change on a comparable scale. The Regiment grew in size, became more diverse in its capabilities and increased its self-sufficiency. The Regiment now numbered over 4,600 soldiers, a four-fold increase over the original 1901 troop count. The first female soldier assigned to the Regiment, was SP-4 Cynthia Engh to HHT Regiment, RS-1 (1974-76). In 1985 the newly formed Combat Support Squadron, known as &ldquoPackhorse,&rdquo was activated in Fulda. Maintenance Troop was the largest in the Regiment with 366 troopers. Of special note was the 58th Combat Engineer Company, known as the &ldquoRed Devils,&rdquo who won the Itschner Award, symbolic of the best Combat Engineer unit in the U.S. Army. In 1991 the 511th Military Intelligence Company, known as &ldquoTrojanhorse,&rdquo was selected as the best company-sized intelligence unit in the Army.

Border operations were serious business. Each cavalry troop of the Regiment could expect border duty four times a year &ndash each tour lasting 21-30 days. Duty day began with a 0600 border briefing, a review of SOP&rsquos and an update on the latest sightings or incidents. Part of the mission was to demonstrate to potential adversaries that the Blackhorse, representing all NATO forces, was well-disciplined and ready to fight. The trooper&rsquos gear had to be clean, boots highly polished, uniforms pressed, weapons spotless, and radios fully operational. After inspection, the troopers were divided into reaction forces observation posts (OP&rsquos), and patrol duty (PD&rsquos). Usually two armored vehicles with 10 men would respond virtually without notice to any contingency along the border. The crews had 10 minutes to be moving out of the camp gate &ndash fully equipped, weapons mounted, ammunition on board. Patrolling was a 24 hours a day &ndash 7 days a week function.

Observation Posts (OP&rsquos) served as base camps as well as vantage points for observation. First Squadron occupied OP Alpha near Hunfeld-Schlitz-Lauterbach. Second Squadron was at Camp Lee northeast of Bad Kissingen near Bad Neustadt. Troops were dispatched to OP Tennessee. Third Squadron manned two OP&rsquos Romeo, overlooking the Eisenach-Bad Hersfeld autobahn, at Herleshausen, which was a legal crossing, point.

THE WALL CAME DOWN
9 November 1989

The Warsaw Pact and the legitimacy of the Eastern Europe&rsquos Communist military regimes were disintegrating. The stage was clearly set for a dramatic transformation of the European status quo that had existed since the Cold War began.

One historic day changed the mission of the Regiment in Fulda irrevocably. On 1 March 1990 the Regiment ceased border operations altogether and closed its OP&rsquos. Less than eleven months after the border opened for the two Germanys to re-unite, the Blackhorse lost its claim of being a &ldquoBorder Regiment.&rdquo

The Regiment&rsquos legacy was a justifiable pride at having played an important role in one of the greatest victories of military history, a victory all the more remarkable for having been won without firing a shot.

THE GULF CRISIS
(Southwest Asia Service Medal)

The unexpected surprise Iraqi invasion of Kuwait on 2 August 1990 triggered the Gulf Crisis that gripped the world&rsquos attention.

The Regiment was not deployed into the Gulf as a unit. The first deployment of 200 troopers included aircrews, mechanics, truck drivers, physician&rsquos assistants, intelligence analysts and others. The scout platoons of Troop E and Troop K deployed as units. In the brief, but violent ground campaign that routed Saddam Hussein&rsquos Army, one group of Blackhorse scouts, the 1st Platoon of Troop E distinguished themselves. While fighting as part of the 3rd ACR, led by 1st Lt. Tom Johnson and Staff Sergeant Richard Shelton, Troop E moved over 325 Kilometers in less than 60 hours, finishing the war just south of the Iraqi City of Basra. This one platoon captured thirteen enemy prisoners and destroyed thirteen trucks, two command bunkers, and the communications bunker. None of the scouts of Troop E, nor any other Blackhorse trooper, suffered any casualties.

The end of the actual hostilities in the Gulf did not result in a return to normalcy. Far from it, the aftermath of Saddam Hussein&rsquos defeat triggered an uprising of Iraq&rsquos oppressed Kurdish minority. The Iraqi military bloody suppression of the Kurdish uprising sent hundreds of thousands of Kurds fleeing into the mountainous wastes of southeastern Turkey and western Iran. The world watched in horrified wonderment when the United States took the lead in responding to this intolerable situation. American and Allied military units were directed to deliver relief supplies to the refugees.

The morning of 10 April 1991, V Corps directed the Blackhorse to deploy an aviation task force to supervise the relief operations in Turkey. This was no different from the &ldquoNo-Notice&rdquo deployment to join General &ldquoBlack Jack&rdquo Pershing, in 1916 in Mexico. The Regiment responded quickly and deployed for Operation PROVIDE COMFORT. Within 70 hours of receiving first warning orders, Task Force Thunderhorse, under the command of Major John Mainwaring, launched from Fulda and landed in Diyarbakir, on an austere and remote airfield in southeastern Turkey. Fourth Squadron played a leading role in PROVIDE COMFORT. Fourth Squadron was the foundation from which massive allied helicopter fleets emerged: flying hundreds of sorties, delivering supplies, flying Special Forces teams and relief workers in and out of refugee camps, evacuating the sick and wounded, and inserting the Allied forces to protect the Kurds from Iraqi interference.

In orders dated 16 May 1991, as part of the Operation POSITIVE FORCE, the Joint Chiefs of Staff directed the 11th ACR to deploy immediately to Kuwait in order to sustain a presence there.

13 June 1991, only two weeks after the first Blackhorse soldier had arrived in theatre, the Regiment assumed from 1st Brigade, 3d Armored Division the responsibility for defending Kuwait. The Regiment&rsquos new base camp was a sprawling complex surrounded by an eight-foot high wall.

The three line squadrons took turns pulling &ldquoZ Cycle&rdquo, a designation that included responsibility for security. Manning gates, towers, the Z Squadron kept a platoon-size Quick Reaction Force (QRF) on alert around the clock, seven days a week. The QRF deployed off the compound without notice at least twice daily, a muscle-flexing exercise.

On the morning of 11 July a defective vehicle heater triggered a motor pool fire in the north compound of Blackhorse Base Camp. Despite valiant efforts to extinguish it, the blaze burned out of control and began detonating ammunition stored in and around the Regiment&rsquos vehicle fleet. The resulting shower of shrapnel and unexploded ordnance forced the evacuation of the entire compound and caused extensive damage.

Some fifty Blackhorse troopers suffered injuries that day, a number that would have been far higher had it not been for numerous individual acts of heroism and the Regiment&rsquos disciplined response to the emergency. Miraculously, there were no fatalities.

Gen. H. Norman Schwarzkopf, Commander-in-Chief of the United States Central Command, visited the Regiment. He presented the Soldier&rsquos Medal for Heroism to three Blackhorse soldiers:

Major Ricky Lynch
Staff Sergeant Charles Rogers
Private Eric Tomlinson

As the Regiment returned from the Gulf in September 1991 it had to confront this period of change with an odd mixture of uncertainty and unpredictability. The &ldquogood guys&rdquo and &ldquobad guys&rdquo could not be identified, as before. In a world wracked by religious and ethnic passion, economic rivalry, and the frustrated aspirations of hundreds of millions of people, the prospects for lasting peace and harmony seemed remote. Prudent nations and wise soldiers would &ldquokeep their powder dry&rdquo.

SOUTHWEST ASIA
Kuwait
Cease-Fire
(Battle Streamer)

INACTIVATED
15 October 1993 &ndash 15 March 1994, Germany

It is always a time of great sorrow when a Regiment with such distinction is ordered to furl its colors. As the military was down sizing, the Regiment was inactivated, but not for long.

THE BEST OF THE BEST,
ALLONS!
NOW TRAINS TODAY&rsquoS ARMY

ACTIVATED
16 October 1994 Fort Irwin, California

The Regiment now serves as the opposing force (OPFOR) in exercises designed to train Army battalion and brigade task forces in tactical and operational level skills under near-combat conditions. The Regiment formerly publishes the &ldquoRed Thrust Star&rdquo, a quarterly magazine to disseminate accurate and current information regarding the doctrine, organization, equipment, and tactics of all potential adversary military forces.

Most knowledgeable leaders and soldiers alike, consider the 11th Armored Cavalry Regiment the best-trained mechanized force in the world. Continuing in the NTC tradition of Lead, Train, Win, the Blackhorse stands ready to respond to any mission to which it may be called.
NOTE: The famous writer Tom Clancy wrote a book entitled Executive Order, in which he mentions the 11th Armored Cavalry Regiment as being the premier regiment in the U. S. Army and that they went into the Gulf region again to stop a dictator. It was based on the training and experiences acquired at Fort Irwin, California.

IRAQI FREEDOM/WAR ON TERRIORISM
DEPLOYMENT
January 2005 &ndash 17 March 2006

On 4 July 2004, the Regiment received deployment orders for Operation Iraqi Freedom. Previously, in June 58th Combat Engineers, Red Devils, was the first to deploy attached to 2nd BDE, 10th Mountain Division in Baghdad, Iraq. 2nd Squadron deployed in December 2004 to Babil Province, to conduct support and stability operations with the 155th Mississippi National Guard. 1st Squadron deployed in January 2005 to Baghdad, Iraq. Over the course of the year they were attached to four different Brigade Combat Teams conducting full spectrum operations in the Baghdad area of operations. The Regimental Headquarters deployed to Mosul Iraq that same month and assumed duty as the division headquarters for Multi National Force North-West.

The Regimental Support Squadron was faced with the dual mission of providing the Regimental Rear Command Post and continuing to support the rotational training mission. 1/221 Cavalry, Nevada ARNG, was activated and deployed to Fort Irwin in the fall of 2004, formed the core of NTC&rsquos premier Opposing Force. On two separate continents the Regiment demonstrated cavalry panache and flexibility, performing its wartime mission within a tradition of unmatched excellence that no other separate brigade has been called on to perform.

The Regiment returns to Fort Irwin to reorganize as a deployable heavy brigade combat team while continuing to serve in rotational support for the military at large.

DUAL MISSION
(OPFOR comes to an end)
June 2006

Mission Statement:
On order, 11ACR deploys to an area of operations and accomplishes all assigned missions to fight and win our nation&rsquos wars executes rotational support through fielding a trained and disciplined force to train our Army.

Commanders of the 11th ACR

1st Colonel Francis Moore 1901 &ndash 1903

2nd Colonel Earl D. Thomas 1903 &ndash 1907

3rd Colonel James Parker 1907 &ndash 1913

4th Colonel James Lockett 1913 &ndash 1915

5th Colonel N.T. McClure 1915 &ndash 1916

6th Colonel James Erwin 1916 &ndash 1918

7th Colonel Claude E. Sweeze 1918 &ndash 1920

8th Colonel John M. Jenkins 1920 &ndash 1923

9th Colonel Herbert J. Brees 1923 &ndash 1926

10th Colonel Leon B. Kromer 1926 &ndash 1928

11th Colonel Rogers S. Fitch 1928 &ndash 1930

12th Colonel Ben Lear 1930 &ndash 1932

13th Colonel R.H. Parker 1932 &ndash 1935

14th Colonel Troup Miller 1935 &ndash 1938

15th Colonel Hommer M. Grominger 1938 &ndash 1940

16th Colonel Harold Raynor 1940 &ndash 1942

17th Colonel B. Marrow 1942 &ndash 1943

18th Colonel William R. H. Reinberg 1943 &ndash 1944

19th Colonel Harry W. C. Chandler 1944

20th Colonel Andrew A. Frierson 1944 &ndash 1946

21st Colonel William S. Biddle 1946 &ndash 1948

22nd Colonel Chester Willingham 1951

23rd Colonel Brainard S. Cook 1951 &ndash 1952

24th Colonel Carl N. Smith 1952 &ndash 1954

25th Colonel B.W. Heckmeyer 1954 &ndash 1955

26th Colonel Arthur D. Pointer 1955 &ndash 1956

27th Colonel Allen D. Hulse 1956 &ndash 1957

28th Colonel James W. Snee 1957 &ndash 1958

29th Colonel Walter Greenwood 1958 &ndash 1960

30th Colonel Robert L. Erlenbush 1960 &ndash 1961

31st Colonel George M. Seignious II 1961 &ndash 1963

32nd Colonel Chester E. Kennedy 1963 &ndash 1964

33rd Colonel Donald P. Boyer 1964 &ndash 1965

Entered into Vietnam_________________________________________________

34th Colonel William Cobb 7 Sept. 66 &ndash 8 May 67
SGM Arthur Hawthorne

35th Colonel Roy Farley 8 May 67 &ndash 5 Dec. 67
New Rank of Regimental Command Sergeant Major (RCSM)
1st RCSM Donald E. Horn 1967

36th Colonel Jack MacFarlane, Wounded 5 Dec. 67 &ndash 12 Mar. 68
1st RCSM Donald E. Horn 1967 &ndash 1968

37th Colonel Leonard Holder, Killed in Vietnam 12 Mar. 68 &ndash 21 Mar. 68
1st RCSM Donald E. Horn 1968

38th Colonel Charles Gorder, Wounded 22 Mar. 68 &ndash 15 Jul. 68
1st RCSM Donald E. Horn
2nd RCSM Daniel J. Mulcahey, Wounded 1968

*39th Colonel George S. Patton Jr. 15 Jul. 68 &ndash 6 Apr. 69
2nd RCSM Daniel J. Mulcahey
3rd RCSM Paul W. Squires 1968 &ndash 1969

40th Colonel James Leach 6 Apr. 69-6 Dec. 69
4th RCSM Donald E. Horn 1969

*41st Colonel Donn A. Starry, Wounded 6 Dec. 69 &ndash 22 Jun. 70
4th RCSM Donald E. Horn 1970
42nd Colonel John L. Gerrity 22 Jun. 70 &ndash 1971
5th RCSM Hiram Harrison 1970

43rd Colonel Wallace Nutting 1971
5th RCSM Hiram Harrison

Reflagging: 14th ACR to the 11th ACR in Fulda, Germany, 17 May 1972

44th Colonel Egbert Clark III 1972 &ndash 1973
Last COL for 14th ACR-44th COL for 11th ACR

45th Colonel Robert L. Schweitzer 1973 &ndash 1974
6th RCSM Charles Cowen

46th Colonel John L. Ballantyne 1974 &ndash 1976
6th RCSM Charles Cowen

47th Colonel Crosbie E. Saint 1976 &ndash 1978
6th RCSM Charles Cowen
7th RCSM John Stephens

48th Colonel Robert Sunnell 1978 -1979
7th RCSM John Stephens 1978 &ndash 1979

49th Colonel John Sherman Crow 1979 &ndash 1982
7th RCSM John Stephens 1979 &ndash 1980
8th RCSM A.C. Cotton 1980 &ndash 1982

50th Colonel Frederick Franks 1982 &ndash 1984
8th RCSM A. C. Cotton 1982 &ndash 1983
9th RCSM Robert Williams 1983 &ndash 1984

51st Colonel Joe Driskill 1984 &ndash 1986
9th RCSM Robert Williams 1984 &ndash 1986

52nd Colonel Thomas E. White 1986 &ndash 1988
10th RCSM Mark Grezbski 1986 &ndash 1988

53rd Colonel John Abrams 1988 &ndash 1990
11th RCSM Jake Fryer 1988 &ndash 1990

54th Colonel A. J. Bacevich 1990 &ndash 1992
12th RCSM Earl J. Williams 1990 &ndash 1992

55th Colonel William S. Wallace 1992 &ndash 1994
12th RCSM Earl J. Williams 1992 &ndash 1994

Deactivated 15 Mar. 1994, Germany &ndash Reactivated 16 Oct. 1994, Ft. Irwin, CA
56th Colonel Terry L. Tucker, 11th ACR Oct. 1994 &ndash June 1996
Last Colonel of the 177th Armor Brigade
13th RCSM Dennis E. Webster, 11th ACR 1994 &ndash March 1996
Last CSM of the 177th Armor Brigade
14th RCSM Carlton Martin March 1996 &ndash June 1996

57th Colonel Guy C. Swan III June 1996 &ndash June 1998
14th RCSM Carlton Martin June 1996 &ndash June 1998

58th Colonel John D. Rosenberger June 1998 &ndash June 2000
14th RCSM Carlton Martin June 1998 &ndash June 2000

59th Colonel H. Mike Davis 21 June 2000 &ndash 21 June 2002
Last Colonel of the 60th Guards Motorized Rifle Division
15th RCSM Steve Flood 10 August 2000 &ndash Oct 2003
Last CSM of the 60th Guards Motorized Rifle Division

60th Colonel Joseph A. Moore 21 June 2002 &ndash 22 June 2004
First Colonel, 11th Divisional Tactical Group (OPFOR)
15th RCSM Steve Flood 10 August 2000 &ndash Oct 2003
First CSM of the 11th Divisional Tactical Group (OPFOR)
16th RCSM Ricky A. Pring 21 January 2004 &ndash 10 August 2007
Second CSM, 11th Divisional Tactical Group (OPFOR)

61st Colonel Peter C. Bayer, Jr. 22 June 2004 &mdash 1 Aug. 2006
Second & Last Colonel, 11th Divisional Tactical Group (OPFOR)
11th Armor Cavalry Regiment
16th RCSM Ricky A. Pring 21 January 2004 &ndash 10 August 2007
Second & Last CSM, 11th Divisional Tactical Group (OPFOR)

62nd Colonel Mark E. Calvert 01 Aug. 2006 &ndash 02 July 2008
11th Armor Cavalry Regiment
16th RCSM Ricky A. Pring 21 January 2004 &ndash 10 August 2007
17th RCSM, Fred H Morris 10 August 2007 &ndash 30 March 2009

63nd Colonel Paul J. Laughlin 02 July 2008 &ndash July 2010
17th RCSM, Fred H Morris 10 August 2007 &ndash 30 March 2009
18th RCSM Martin Wilcox 30 March 2009 &ndash 2 March 2011

64th Colonel Antonio Aguto, 30 July 2010 &ndash July 2012
18th RCSM Martin Wilcox 30 March 2009 &ndash 2 March 2011
19th RCSM, Clinton Reiss, 2 March 2011 &ndash 10 April 2012
20th RCSM, CSM Stephen J.Travers, 16 April 2012 &ndash 19 Dec 2013
65th Colonel John &ldquoLanier&rdquo Ward, July 2012 &ndash July 2014

66th Colonel of the Regiment &ndash Kevin L. Jacobi &ndash July 2014 &ndash present
21st CSM of the Regiment &ndash Carl Ashmead &ndash 12 March 2014 &ndash present

1st, 3rd Honorary Colonel of the Regiment &ndash 41st Colonel Donn A. Starry
2nd Honorary Colonel of the Regiment &ndash 39th Colonel George S. Patton Jr.
4th and Current Honorary Colonel of the Regiment &ndash 52nd Colonel Thomas E. White

1st Honorary Regimental Command Sergeant Major &ndash 1st & 4th Regimental Command Sergeant Major Donald E. Horn
2nd Honorary Regimental Command Sergeant Major &ndash Sergeant Major of the Army, Kenneth O. Preston (USA, Retired)

11th Armored Cavalry
(THE BLACKHORSE REGIMENT)

CAMPAIGN PARTICIPATION CREDIT

Philippine Insurrection Vietnam
Samar 1902 Counteroffensive, Phase II
Counteroffensive, Phase III
Mexican Expedition Tet Counteroffensive
Mexico 1916-1917 Counteroffensive, Phase IV
Counteroffensive, Phase V
World War II Counteroffensive, Phase VI
Normandy Tet 69/ Counteroffensive
Northern France Summer-Fall 1969
Rhineland Winter-Spring 1970
Ardennes-Alsace Sanctuary Counteroffensive
Central Europe Counteroffensive, Phase VII

Gulf War
Southwest Asia Cease-Fire

Air Troop additionally entitled to:

Vietnam
Consolidation I
Consolidation II

All elements of the 2nd Squadron each additionally entitled to:

Vietnam
Consolidation I
Consolidation II
Cease-Fire

DECORATIONS
Troop A, 1st Squadron, Presidential Unit Citation (Army), 26 March 1970, Vietnam
Valorous Unit Award, Streamer embroidered BINH LONG-BIEN HOA

Valorous Unit Award, Streamer embroidered FISH HOOK

Republic of Vietnam Cross of Gallantry with Palm, Streamer embroidered VIETNAM 1966-1968
Republic of Vietnam Cross of Gallantry with Palm, Streamer embroidered VIETNAM 1969-1970

Republic of Vietnam Cross of Gallantry with Palm, Streamer embroidered VIETNAM 1970

Air Troop additionally entitled to:

Valorous Unit Award, Streamer embroidered PHOUC TUY-LONG KHANH

Republic of Vietnam Cross of Gallantry with Palm, Streamer embroidered VIETNAM 1971

Headquarters Troop, 1st Squadron Troop C Company D and the Howitzer Battery, 1st Squadron, each additionally entitled to:

Presidential Unit Citation (Army), Streamer embroidered HAU NGHIA-BINH DUONG

Troop A additionally entitled to:

Presidential Unit Citation (Army), Streamer embroidered HAU NGHIA-BINH DOUNG

Republic of Vietnam Cross of Gallantry with Palm, Streamer embroidered VIETNAM 1970

Troop B additionally entitled to:

Presidential Unit Citation (Army), Streamer embroidered GIA RAY

Presidential Unit Citation (Army), Streamer embroidered HAU NGHIA-BINH DOUNG
Headquarters Troop, 2nd Squadron Troop E Troop G and the Howitzer Battery, 2nd Squadron, each additionally entitled to:

Republic of Vietnam Cross of Gallantry with Palm, Streamer embroidered VIETNAM 1970-1971

Troop F and Company H each additionally entitled to:

Valorous Unit Award, Streamer embroidered AN LOC

Republic of Vietnam Cross of Gallantry with Palm, Streamer embroidered VIETNAM 1970-1971

Headquarters Troop, 3rd Squadron, additionally entitled to:

Presidential Unit Citation (Army), Streamer embroidered DUC HOA

Valorous Unit Award, Streamer embroidered PHOUC TUY-LONG KHANH

Valorous Unit Award, Streamer embroidered AN LOC

Meritorious Unit Commendation (Army), Streamer embroidered EUROPEAN THEATER

Meritorious Unit Commendation (Army), Streamer embroidered VIETNAM 1966- 1967

French Croix de Guerre with Palm, World War II, Streamer embroidered MOSELLE-SARRE RIVERS

Troop I additionally entitled to:

Presidential Unit Citation (Army), Streamer embroidered DUC HOA

Valorous Unit Award, Streamer embroidered PHOUC TUY-LONG KHANH

Valorous Unit Award, Streamer embroidered AN LOC

Valorous Unit Award, Streamer embroidered BINH LONG PROVINCE 1969

Meritorious Unit Commendation (Army), Streamer embroidered VIETNAM 1966-1967

French Croix de Guerre with Palm, World War II, Streamer embroidered MOSELLE-SARRE RIVERS

Troop K additionally entitled to:

Presidential Unit Citation (Army), Streamer embroidered FRANCE

Presidential Unit Citation (Army), Streamer embroidered DUC HOA

Valorous Unit Award, Streamer embroidered PHOUC TUY-LONG KHANH

Valorous Unit Award, Streamer embroidered AN LOC

Meritorious Unit Commendation (Army), Streamer embroidered VIETNAM 1966-1967

French Croix de Guerre with Palm, World War II, Streamer embroidered, MOSELLE-SARRE RIVERS

Troop L additionally entitled to:

Presidential Unit Citation (Army), Streamer embroidered DUC HOA

Valorous Unit Award, Streamer embroidered PHOUC TUY-LONG KHANH

Meritorious Unit Commendation (Army), Streamer embroidered VIETNAM 1966-1967

French Croix de Guerre with Palm, World War II, Streamer embroidered MOSELLE-SARRE RIVERS

Company M and Howitzer Battery, 3rd Squadron, each additionally entitled to:

Presidential Unit Citation (Army), Streamer embroidered DUC HOA

Valorous Unit Award, Streamer embroidered PHOUC TUY-LONG KHANH

Valorous Unit Award, Streamer embroidered AN LOC

Meritorious Unit Commendation (Army), Streamer embroidered VIETNAM 1966-1967

BY ORDER OF THE SECRETARY OF THE ARMY:
ROBERT L. DILWORTH
Brigadier General, USA
The Adjutant General

(Melody is from &ldquoBonnie Blue Flag&rdquo of the Civil War era and/or &ldquoBlack is the Color of My True Love&rsquos Hair.&rdquo
Revised by: LTC Robert B. Akam
Fort Irwin, CA
1 March 2004
ALLONS!

We are the Blackhorse Troopers, the finest in the land
We fight for right and use our might, to free our fellow man,
Our girls wear yellow ribbons, as pretty as can be
They&rsquore Troopers too and loyal through, we&rsquore in the Cavalry.

REFRAIN:
Allons! Allons! The Pride of the Cavalry
The Best damn Regiment that you will ever see.

So gather round ye troopers, a story we must tell
About the Blackhorse Regiment, its servitude in hell.
We&rsquove fought for freedom bravely, with honor and acclaim,
We are the Eleventh Cavalry and Blackhorse is our name.

In nineteen hundred zero one, the Regiment was born
Our destiny to serve and fight on far off foreign shores.
The Philippines and Cuba, their spurs our troopers won,
Then chased the bandit Villa down into the southern sun.

In World War I we trained the men on bases here at home
And when they fought on distant shores Blackhorse tradition shone.
In World War II the horse was put to pasture with our thanks
Instead of horses Blackhorse Troopers now were issued tanks.

Our horse is made of Iron, eats gas instead of hay
Has first round hits, no snaffle bits, and sabers are passé.
We wade through mud with guts and blood, and keep our country free
With shout and song and ALLONS ON, we&rsquore the Eleventh Cavalry.

We fought in France, in Germany and in old Belgium too
Europe wanted to be free, the Blackhorse made it true.
The enemy defeated, peace settled through the land
Again the Eleventh Cavalry had strengthened freedoms stand.

Then we went to Vietnam, what were we doing there?
Our role was training friends to stand against the Communist Bear.
Again our girls were waiting, bravely as could be
Allons and on towards peace we go, in glory live to see.

In nineteen hundred seventy two, the Fulda Gap&rsquos in hand
The Eleventh U.S. Cavalry was there to make its stand.
Freedom was our mission, fighting was our fame
We were the Blackhorse Troopers as professional as they came.

Patrols along the lonely trace, of freedom&rsquos far frontier,
Our vigilance rewarded after years of sweat and tears
November ninth, in eighty-nine, the Iron Curtain falls
With Blackhorse troopers there to witness liberty for all.

Once the protector of Europe, now we train the world.
Down Langford Lake through Whale Gap, our Victory is assured.
Masters of Maneuver, we know the Desert Sands,
The BLUFOR comes 10 times a year, to make a futile stand.

At home as well as foreign soil, were ever freedom stands
You&rsquoll find a Blackhorse trooper there, to help his fellow man.
Our guidon&rsquos raised in honor, our glasses held on high
Allons and on towards peace we go, in glory live and die.

On 2 February 1901, the 11th Cavalry was activated as a horse Regiment at Fort Myer, Virginia. To commemorate the activation of the Regiment, a fine SOUTHERN BOURBON WHISKEY&hellip and a TOBACCO LEAF from the fields of Virginia.

In December of that year, the Regiment deployed to the jungles of the Philippines. Its mission was to help neutralize forces that were trying to seize power. For this tropical deployment, the men operated more like light infantry than cavalry due to the jungle terrain in which they fought. In addition to their rifles, the men were issued &ldquoBOLO&rdquo knives to slash through thick vegetation. The Bolos became a part of the Allons Crest. The Regiment received it&rsquos first Battle Streamer, &ldquoSamar 1902&Prime For these early soldiers we add SAN MIGUEL BEER, the beer of the Philippines, plus a potent PHILIPPINO RUM&hellip

The regiment arrived in Havana, Cuba on 16 October 1906. The mission of the Regiment was to &lsquoshow the flag&rsquo by conducting mounted patrols throughout the countryside between the villages. While in Cuba the regiment was joined by its, 3rd Colonel of the Regiment, Colonel James Parker, &ldquoGalloping Jim&rdquo (the longest serving Colonel) continued peacekeeping operations during the Regiment&rsquos two-year stay, remaining ready for any and all eventualities. By 1909, the political situation in Cuba was stable and the regiment was recalled. For these long-range patrol troopers, we add NATURAL BROWN SUGAR&hellip

On March 9, 1916, Mexican Forces loyal to Pancho Villa attacked American border towns leaving them in ruin. The assault could not be ignored. President Wilson immediately ordered General Pershing to lead a &ldquoPunitive Expedition&rdquo into Mexico to capture Villa and neutralize his army. On March 12, 1916 the 2nd Squadron, Commanded my Major Robert L. Howze led a mounted charge into the town of Ojos Azules. A two-hour gunfight ensued. When it was over, Howze&rsquos men counted 42 enemy dead and many wounded. There was not one trooper or horse lost from the regiment. This incident would later be known in History as the &ldquoLast Mounted Charge.&rdquo May 5th is the Regiment&rsquos official organizational day, in honor of Howze&rsquos charge. For these Troopers we add FIERY MEXICAN TEQUILA, the drink of Mexico and PEACH JUICE from Georgia, the Regimental Headquarters in 1916.

Following its withdrawal from Mexico in 1917, the Regimental Headquarters moved to Presidio of Monterey in California, where it remained until 1942. In that year, the Regiment gave up its beloved horses for armored vehicles. In memory of the Regiment&rsquos long years of peacetime, service in California and its mechanization, a BITTER-SWEET CALIFORNIA WINE&hellipBitter for the loss of the horse Sweet for the introduction of armor.

The United States was drawn into World War II on December 7, 1941. Elements of the Regiment were detached to form the cadre for newly organized units. The squadrons went to Europe as part of the 10th Armored Division and the 90th Infantry Division with whom they entered France on November 23, 1944. The Regiment participated in the sweep across France, the liberation of Alsace&ndashLorraine, and the Battle of the Bulge. In recognition of the Regiment&rsquos service in Normandy, Northern France and Ardennes-Alace Campaigns, a fine FRENCH CHAMPAGNE&hellip

The Regiment then entered Germany, participating in the fierce battles for the Rhineland, and then in the Central Europe Campaign. They were given the mission to screen the flank of the XIII CORPS, which it from the Roer River to the Rhine. Redesignated as the 11th Armored Battalion, the 11th Armored Group, and the 11th Cavalry Group, Mechanized. In honor of the Regiment&rsquos crossing of the Rhine and participation on the final defeat of Germany,
a flowery RHINE WINE&hellip

The Regiment receives its Shoulder Insignia and becomes a legion. The Blackhorse arrived in Vietnam on September 7, 1966. At that time, the regiment was equipped with M113 Armored Cavalry Assault vehicles and M48A3 Tanks. Later, the M551 Sheridan was employed. In Vietnam the regiment was awarded 14 Battle Streamers and three soldiers received the Medal of Honor. The 2nd Squadron re-deployed to the U.S. in March of 1972, 13 months after the rest of the regiment. In their honor, we add a spicy RICE WINE and MOTOR OIL (corn syrup)
to keep our VEHICLIES and TANKS running

On May 17, 1972, the 11th Armored Cavalry Regiment was assigned the mission of patrolling the East-West German border along &ldquoThe Fulda Gap.&rdquo For 17 years the regiment conducted its mission. On November 9, 1989, the East &ndash West Berlin Wall fell. By December of 1991, the Soviet Union was dissolved. The regiment&rsquos vigil along the Iron Curtain was over. For these Troopers we add RUSSIAN VODKA and a fine GERMAN CHAMPAGNE for their victory in the Cold War.

For the cavalry troopers who served during the Persian Gulf War we add NEAR &ndash BEER since it was the &ldquohardest stuff&rdquo our Muslim allies would allow us to drink in their country.

The Blackhorse serves as the Army&rsquos premier training force. The National Training Center&rsquos Opposing Force (OPFOR) continuing to Lead, Train, and Win. The Blackhorse stands ready to respond to any mission it may be called upon. We add our finial ingredients CALIFORNIA WINE and ORANGE JUICE&hellip from California orchards, &ldquoAlways shaken, not stirred.&rdquo

In 2005-2006, the Blackhorse deployed in Support of Operation IraqFreedom III and conducted combat operations throughout Iraq, in support of multiple commands. Our Regiment served with distinction and no other Regimental size unit in he Army was called upon to do &ldquoMore with Less&rdquo and the true Cavalry fashion, once again, the Blackhorse did it all! In recognition of our &ldquodo more with less&rdquo attitude we now add just a dash of EVERCLEAR.

Today, the Blackhorse serves as the Army&rsquos premier deployable training force. We continue to train our Army as well as stand ready to deploy, fight, win and win again, when our nation calls. The Blackhorse remains ready to respond to any mission it may be called upon to accomplish. We now add our final ingredients in honor of our dual role mission we add. . . .BLACK AND TAN.

11th ACR&rsquos Regimental Prayer
(Vietnam)

Lord God,
As you have called us to this Regiment,
help us now to serve it with selflessness and courage.
Strengthen us to persevere
In the soldierly virtues of Saint George, our patron.
Guide us always in the discharge of our duties.
Show us the way to true peace
And grant us the wisdom to pursue it.
Watch over us, Father,
As we face the trials, that awaits us.
This we pray in Your Name.
Amen.

Regimental Toasts & Responses

Ladies and Gentlemen: Please CHARGE YOUR GLASSES AND STAND.

TOAST: To the United States of America
RESPONSE: To America

TOAST: To the President of the United States
RESPONSE: To the Commander-in-Chief

TOAST: For 100+ Years of Faithful Service to our Nation:
RESPONSE: To the Blackhorse Regiment

TOAST: To Our Fallen Comrades
RESPONSE: To Our Comrades

Gentlemen, Seat the Ladies

TOAST: To Our Lovely Ladies
RESPONSE: To Our Ladies

Halfway down the trail to hell
In a shady meadow green,
Are the souls of all the dead troopers camped,
Near a good old time canteen,
And this eternal resting place
Is known as Fiddler&rsquos Green.

Marching past, straight through to hell
The Infantry are seen, accompanied by the Engineers,
Artillery and Marines.
For none but shades of cavalry
Dismount at Fiddler&rsquos Green.

Though some go curving down the trail
To seek a warmer scene,
No trooper ever gets to hell,
Ere he empties his canteen
And so rides back to drink again&rsquo
With friends at Fiddler&rsquos Green.

And so, when men and horses go down
Beneath a saber keen,
Or in a roaring charge or fierce melee
You stop a bullet clean,
When the hostiles come to get your scalp,
Just empty your canteen,
And put your pistol to your head
And go to Fiddler&rsquos Green.

Our Fallen Comrades Tribute
(1776-Present)
(Table setting)

The War of Independence was fought from 1776 to 1782 by a volunteer force assembled from the original 13 colonies. These brave soldiers gave us our independence from Great Britain. This musket is representative of a musket recovered from the hands of one of the first to fall for our freedom in a small field near Concord, Massachusetts following our new nations first Armed Conflict between the &ldquominute men&rdquo and troops of Great Britain. Thousands never came home.

World Wars I and II were the most devastating wars in human history. Millions of lives were lost in defense of the world&rsquos freedom. This rocking chair represents the thousands of mothers, fathers, grandmothers and grandfathers who waited at home for 418,131 Americans who would never return.

Communism from the North brought war to the Korean Peninsula in 1950. The United States lost 23,300 soldiers to gain an Armistice in July 1953. This Red Rose represents the hopes and dreams for peace, which each soldier held in their hearts as they made the ultimate sacrifice for the oppressed people of South Korea.

The Vietnam War was one of the most difficult wars in which our country has fought. With political views differing greatly at home, our American soldiers did their duty for ten long years. Direct U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War would result in 57,685 casualties. This glass of wine represents all of life&rsquos hopes and dreams never realized by those who were lost.

The yellow ribbon represents our nation&rsquos hopes and the prayers of the thousands of families and friends who asked for the safe return of their loved ones from Operation Desert Shield/Desert Storm. Of over 500,000 U.S. service personnel who were deployed to South West Asia, the hopes and prayers for 246 went unanswered.

The Simple Writing Pad And Pen:

This simple writing pad and pen represents all the letters, post cards, birth announcements, birthday cards, anniversary cards and holiday notes with pictures of loved ones that will never be written or answered because of cowardly terrorist attacks. The attacks against the Pentagon, Twin Towers and the hijacked aircraft that was diverted into the fields of Pennsylvania have shown the strength of the American spirit, as the American eagle&rsquos talons now lash out against terrorism. Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan and the Philippines, and now Operation Iraqi Freedom, has brought a new type of war to our service personal. Our service members of the Army, Navy, Marines, Air Force and Coast Guard and our allies are fighting to suppress the Taliban, Al Qaeda and any other terrorist network they find to keep them away from our doorsteps. The final numbers aren&rsquot written yet, but many of our comrades will never again write home.

A lit candle was placed in the window to serve as a homing light for soldiers during the American Revolution and our Civil War. Often the battles took place near their homes and the families would place a lit candle in the window to help show them the way back home. Today, it serves as a reminder for us, of the ultimate sacrifice our fallen comrades and their families have made to preserve the precious freedom we cherish today. The candle&rsquos glow reflects the hopes and prayers of our entire nation as we fight this war against terrorism a war that has already left vacant chairs and will ultimately leave more in our households.

As a small tribute, I ask that we observe a moment of silence and think back on your family members who have served in America&rsquos Armed Forces or the nation of your ancestries or personal friends. And in your heart say &ldquothank you&rdquo as an expression of our gratitude to those who have given the ultimate sacrifice for us.


Cavalry - History

Pennsylvania in the Civil War

1st Pennsylvania Cavalry / 44th Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers
- Field and Staff Officers
- Company A - Juniata County
- Company B - Athensville, Montgomery County
- Company C - Mifflin County
- Company D - Lock Haven, Clinton County, and Cameron and Clinton Counties
- Company E - Centre, Clinton & Clearfield Counties
- Company F - Carmichael's, Greene County
- Company G - Harrisburg, Dauphin County and Blair County
- Company H - Fayette County
- Company I - Washington County
- Company K - Allegheny & Washington Counties
- Company L - Berks, Lebanon and Lancaster Counties
- Company M - Berks County
- Unassigned Men
- References
- Medal of Honor Recipients

Falls, R. J. A Letter Received from Major. by the Chairman of the First Penna. Cavalry Association, and Read at the First Reunion of the Regiment, Held at Lewistown, Pa., October 14 and 15, 1886,. NY: Polhemus, 1887.

Lloyd, William P. History of the First Regiment Pennsylvania Reserve Cavalry, From its Organization, August, l86l, to September, l864 , With List of Names of All Officers and Enlisted Men Who Have Ever Belonged to the Regiment, and Remarks Attached to Each Name, Noting Change. Philadelphia: King & Baird, 1864. (Library of Congress)

Scott, James K., Colonel. 1st Pennsylvania Cavalry. The Story of the Battles at Gettysburg . Harrisburg: Telegraph Press, 1927

Col. James K. Scott, 1st Pennsylvania Cavalry. The Story of the Battles at Gettysburg . Harrisburg: Telegraph Press, 1927

1st Provisional Cavalry
Organized at Cloud's Mills, Va., June 17, 1865, by consolidation of 2nd and 20th Pennsylvania Cavalry. Duty at Cloud's Mills till July. Mustered out July 13, 1865
- Roster of Officers

1st Battalion Militia Cavalry
Organized at Harrisburg, Pa., July 13, 1863. Attached to Dept. of the Susquehanna. Mustered out August 21, 1863

2nd Pennsylvania Cavalry/59th Regiment Volunteers
2nd Pennsylvania Cavalry/59th Regiment Volunteers
- Field and Staff Officers
- Company A - Phildelphia
- Company B - Phildelphia
- Company C - Phildelphia
- Company D - Lancaster County
- Company E - Phildelphia
- Company F - Centre County
- Company G - Philadelphia
- Company H - Northampton County
- Company I - Crawford County
- Company K - Philadelphia and Berks Counties
- Company L - Tioga County
- Company M - Armstrong County
- Company M - Armstrong County
- Unassigned Men
- References

From the National Tribune , October 2, 1924, page 7, column 6: "Wm. H. Bartholomew, Company F, 2d Pennsylvania Cavalry, Center Hall, Pa., says the the Center County Pennsylvania Veteran's Association had the best reunion ever held on September 3. There were present 83 veterans, whose ages range from 76 to 91 years, and average 81."

2nd Provisional Cavalry
Organized at Cloud's Mills, Va., June 17, 1865, by consolidation of 1st, 6th and 17th Pennsylvania Cavalry. Mustered out at Lebanon, Ky., August 7, 1865
- Roster of Officers

3rd Pennsylvania Cavalry / 60th Regiment (Young's Kentucky Light Cavalry)
- Field and Staff Officers
- Company A - Philadelphia
- Company B - Philadelphia
- Company C - Philadelphia
- Company D - Washington, D. C.
- Company E - Philadelphia
- Company F - Philadelphia
- Company G - Pittsburg
- Company H - Philadelphia
- Company I - Cumberland County
- Company K - Philadelphia
- Company L - Schuykill County
- Company M - Philadelphia
- Unassigned Men
- References
- Monument at Gettysburg

Rawle, William Brooke, Captain, 3rd Pennsylvania Cavalry. History of the Third Pennsylvania Cavalry, Sixtieth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers, in the American Civil War, 1861-1865 . Philadelphia, 1905.

William Brooke Rawle, Captain, 3rd Pennsylvania Cavalry. The Right Flank at Gettysburg . Olde Soldier Books. An account of the operations of Gregg's Cavalry.

3rd Provisional Cavalry
Organized at Cumberland, Md., June 24, 1865, by consolidation of 18th and 22nd Pennsylvania Cavalry. Duty at Clarksburg, W. Va., till October, 1865. Mustered out October 31, 1865
- Roster of Officers

Doster, William E. A Brief History of the Fourth Pennsylvania Veteran Cavalry . Longstreet House, 1997. Reprint of 1891 edition.

Hyndman, William . History of a Cavalry Company: A Complete Record of Company A, 4th Pennsylvania . Longstreet House, 1997, Reprint of 1870 edition.

Gracey, Samuel L. Annals of the Sixth Pennsylvania Cavalry Vanberg Publishing. Reprint of 1868 original. New Introduction by Eric Wittenberg.

Smith, Thomas W. & Wittenberg, Eric J. We have it Damn Hard Out Here: The Civil War Letters of Sergeant Thomas W. Smith, 6th Pennsylvania Cavalry , Kent State University Press. ISBN# 087338623X

Wittenberg, Eric J. Rush's Lancers: The Sixth Pennsylvania Cavalry in the Civil War . Westholme Publishing, November 2006. ISBN: 1594160325

7th Pennsylvania Cavalry/80th Regiment Volunteers
- Field and Staff Officers
- Company A - Schukyll County
- Company B - Lycoming and Tioga Counties
- Company C - Bradford and Tioga Counties
- Company D - Bradford and Tioga Counties
- Company E - Centre and Clinton Counties
- Company F - Philadelphia and Schukyll County
- Company G - Chester, Lycoming and Tioga Counties
- Company H - Allegheny, Chester and Montour Counties
- Company I - Dauphin and Lycoming Counties
- Company K - Cumberland and Fayette Counties
- Company L - Berks and Northumberland Counties
- Company M - Allegheny County
- Unassigned Men
- References
- Medal of Honor Recipient

Civil War Letters of Jacob Sigmund, 1st Lt., Company E

Dornblaser, Thomas F., Sergeant, 7th Pennsylvania Cavalry. Sabre Strokes of the Pennsylania Dragoons in the War of 1861-1865 . Philadelphia, 1884.

Sipes, William B. The Saber Regiment: History of the 7th Pennsylania Volunteer Cavalry . Blue Acorn. Reprint of 1905 Original

Sipes, William B. The Seventh Pennsylania Veteran Volunteer Cavalry, Its Record, Reminiscences and Roster . Pottsville, 1905.

Vale, Joseph. Minty and the Cavalry: A History of the Cavalry Campaigns in the Western Armies , Harrisburg, Pennyslvania. 1886

8th Pennsylania Cavalry/89th Regiment Volunteers
- Field and Staff Officers
- Company A - Chester County
- Company B - Lycoming County
- Company C - Philadelphia
- Company D - Philadelphia
- Company E - Philadelphia
- Company F - Philadelphia
- Company G - Philadelphia
- Company H - Philadelphia
- Company I - Philadelphia
- Company K - Philadelphia
- Company L - Philadelphia
- Company M - Bucks, Montgomery and Philadelphia Counties
- Unassigned Men
- References
- Medal of Honor Recipients

Carpenter, J. Edward. A List of the Battles, Engagements, Actions and Important Skirmishes in which the Eighth Pennsylvania Cavalry Participated During the War of 1861-1865 , Philadelphia: Allen, Lane & Scott's Printing House, 1866.

Huey, Pennock. A True History of the Charge of the Eighth Pennsylvnaia Cavalry at Chancellorsville , Philadelphia, 1885.

9th Pennsylvania Cavalry/92d Regiment (Lochiel Cavalry)
- Field and Staff Officers
- Regimental Band
- Company A - Perry County
- Company B - Dauphin County
- Company C - Harrisburg
- Company D - Luzerne County
- Company E - Dauphin and Susquehanna Counties
- Company F - Lancaster County
- Company G - Lancaster County
- Company H - Cumberland County
- Company I - Cumberland County
- Company K - Dauphin and Luzerne Counties
- Company L - Luzerne, Mifflin, and Northampton Counties
- Company M - Huntingdon County
- Unassigned Men
- References
- 9th Cavalry Cut to Pieces, July 10, 1862
- A Scout to East Tennessee, December 20 , 1862

Rowell, John W. Yankee Cavalrymen: Through the Civil War with the Ninth Pennsylvania Cavalry . University of Tennessee, 1971.

Veil, Charles Henry. (Edited by Henman Viola) Memoirs of Charles Henry Veil: A Soldier's Recollections of the Civil War and the Arizona Territory , New York: Orion, 1993.

10th Pennsylvania Cavalry
Organization not completed.

History of the Eleventh Pennsylvania Volunteer Cavalry , Together with a Complete Roster of the Regiment and Regimental Officers, Philadelphia: Franklin Printing Company, 1902.

Guss, Abraham Lincoln, 11th Pennsylvania Cavalry. The Coward's Curse and the Patriot's Duty , Carlisle, Pa.: Printed at the "Herald" office, 1861.

13th Pennsylvania Cavalry/117th Regiment (The Irish Dragoons)

- Field and Staff Officers
- Company A - Recruited a Camp Frankford
- Company B - Recruited a Camp Frankford
- Company C - Recruited a Camp Frankford
- Company D - Recruited a Camp Frankford
- Company E - Pittsburg
- Company F - Cumberland County
- Company G - Lycoming County
- Company H - Camp Frankford
- Company I - Camp Frankford
- Company K - Camp Frankford
- Company L - Pike and Wayne Counties
- Company M - Philadelphia
- Unassigned Men
- References
- Medal of Honor Recipients

Hand, Harold (Sonny), Jr. One Good Regiment . Victoria, BC, Canada & Oxford, UK: Trafford Publishing, 2000. 320 pages. ISBN 1-55212-460-6. A history of the 13th Pennsylvania Cavalry (117th Pennsylvania Volunteers). Available from Amazon.com, Barnes & Noble, or the author at [email protected]

The 14th Pa. Volunteer Cavalry in the Civil War by Rev. Wm. Slease, 1915(Reprint), plus muster rolls added by Ron Gancus, 1999. Order from Mechling Bookbindery.

Kirk, Charles H. 1st Lieutenant, Company E. History of the Fifteenth Pennsylvania Volunteer Cavalry Known as the Anderson Cavalry in the Rebellion of 1861-1865 . Philadelphia, 1906.

17th Pennsylvania Cavalry /162nd Regiment
- Field and Staff Officers
- Company A - Beaver County
- Company B - Susquehanna County
- Company C - Lancaster County
- Company D - Bradford County
- Company E - Lebanon County
- Company F - Cumberland County
- Company G - Franklin County
- Company H - Schuylkill County
- Company I - Perry County and the City of Philadelphia
- Company K - Luzerne County
- Company L - Montgomery and Chester Counties
- Company M - Wayne County
- Unassigned Men
- Medal of Honor Recipient
- References
- Certificate of Diability for Discharge
(William G. Gayley)

Moyer, Henry P. History of the Seventeenth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteer Cavalry . Lebanon, PA, 1911.

Bean, Theodore W. The Roll of Honor of the Seventeenth (17th) Pennsylvania Cavalry or One Hundred, Sixty-Second of the Line, Pennsylvania Volunteers , J. S. Claxton, 1865, 85 pages.

Rodenbough, Theodore. History of the Eighteenth Regiment of Cavalry Pennsylvania Volunteers, 1862-1865 , New York: Wynkoop Crawford, 1909 .

Six Months Service:
- Company A - York County
- Company B - Adams County
- Company C - Lancaster County
- Company D - Franklin County
- Company E - Bedford County
- Company F - Cambria County
- Company G - Lancaster County
- Company H - Franklin County
- Company I - Franklin County
- Company K - Franklin County
- Company L - Franklin County
- Company M - Franklin County

Grier, Thomas H. Pennsylvania Cavalry, 21st Regiment, 1863-1865 . Annual Reunions of the 21st Pennsylvania Cavalry Association, Gettysburg, 1891.