Boxer Rebellion:revolt in China against Western influence.
Battle of the Platrand, unsuccessful Boer attempt to break into the British lines at Ladysmith.
Start of the battle of Paardeberg.
Battle of Paardeberg ends with surrender of the Boer army that had been blocking the route to Kimberley.
Battle of Poplar Grove: Boer attempt to delay the British advance to Bloemfontein collapses without serious fighting.
Battle of Driefontein: Heavily outnumbered Boer force delays the British advance towards Bloemfontein for a day, but resistance collapses at nightfall.
Great Flank March ends with the capture of Bloemfontein
30 April-1 May
First day of siege of Liege (to 16 August)
The Battle of Mulhouse (to 9 August 1914), was a minor French offensive in Alsace that ended with an rapid retreat in the face of a German counterattack
First day of Battle of Jadar (to 21 August), first Austrian invasion of Serbia (WWI)
The Battle of Haelen was a minor Allied victory early in the First World War, which saw a German cavalry Corps defeated by dismounted Belgian cavalrymen.
Battle of Gumbinnen (East Prussia), drawn battle between Russian and German forces (WWI)
The Battle of the Frontiers of France (to 24 August 1914), refers to a series of four separate battles, stretching from the Swiss frontier to Mons in Belgium, each of which saw German armies achieve their main objectives.
The Battle of the Ardennes, (to 25 August 1914), saw the failure of a French attack into the Ardennes.
Austrians retreat marks end of Battle of Jadar (from 12 August), marking failure of first Austrian invasion of Serbia
The Battle of the Sambre or Charleroi, (to 23 August 1914), was a German victory over a French army during their advance through Belgium.
Hindenburg and Ludendorff arrive to take command of German eastern front.
Orlau-Frankenau, battle of, 24 August 1914 (East Prussia)
The Battle of Mons was the first battle fought by the BEF during the First World War. The BEF delayed the German advance for a day before being forced to retreat to avoid being cut off.
The battles of Lemberg, (to 12 September), were a series of battles in Galicia that saw the Russians force the Austro-Hungarians back to the Carpathian Mountains.
The battle of Krasnik, (to 25 August), was a minor Austrian victory during their 1914 Galician campaign.
End of the battle of Krasnik (from 23 August), was a minor Austrian victory during their 1914 Galician campaign.
The siege of Maubeuge, (to 7 September 1914), saw the Germans capture the French fortress of Maubeuge on the Sambre after their main armies swept past.
The battle of the Grande Couronne of Nancy, (to 11 September 1914), saw the French defeat a German counterattack from Lorraine.
First day of battle of Tannenberg, between German and Russian forces (WWI)
The Battle of Le Cateau, took place during the retreat of the BEF in the aftermath of the battle of Mons and saw II Corps hold of a German attack for eleven hours
The battle of Komarow (to 1 September 1914), was a minor Austrian victory early in their invasion of Galicia.
The battle of Gnila Lipa (to 30 August) saw two Russian armies push back an Austrian army back to the west of Lemberg.
First day of the First battle of the Marne (France), make or break battle (WWI)
The Battle of the Ourcq River, (to 9 September 1914), was part of the First Battle of the Marne and helped to create the gap in the German line that forced them to withdraw from the Marne to the Aisne.
The First Battle of the Aisne (to 28 September 1914) marked the end of mobile warfare on the Western Front and the start of the period of static trench warfare that would last until 1918
End of the battles of Lemberg (from 23 August).
End of First Battle of Masurian Lakes, German victory ending Russian threat to East Prussia
The first battle of Picardy (to 26 September 1914), was part of the Race to the Sea, the series of encounter battles that decided the location of the Western Front during the First World War.
The raid on Madras was typical of the daring that made the Emden the most famous German commerce raider of the First World War.
Death of Harry Sherwood Ranken, VC MB ChB MRCP 1883-1914, of wounds taken while treating other wounded men.
The battle of Albert, (to 29 September 1914), was part of the Race to the Sea. It was a clash between the French Second Army (de Castelnau) and the German Sixth (Crown Prince Rupprecht), towards the end of the wider first battle of Picardy (22-26 September)
The battle of the Vistula River (to 30 October 1914), saw a German invasion of south western Poland defeated by a much larger Russian army.
The Third Battle of Antwerp (to 10 October 1914), was the final phase of a more prolonged period of fighting around Antwerp that had begun during the third week of August 1914 when the bulk of the Belgian army had fallen back from its initial front line to a new line based around Antwerp. It ended with the surrender of the city on 10 October.
Surrender of Antwerp.
The Battle of La Bassée (to 2 November 1914), was part of the Race to the Sea and helped decided the location of the Western Front in Flanders.
End of the first battle of Artois (from 27 September)
The battle of Messines (to 2 November 1914), was part of the Race to the Sea, the series of battles that decided the line of the western front. It became part of the wider battle around Ypres.
The battle of Armentières, (to 2 November 1914), was part of the Race to the Sea, the series of battles that decided the line of the Western Front as trench warfare took over in the autumn of 1914.
The first battle of Ypres (to 22 November 1914), saw the British and French defeat repeated German attempts to break their lines in an attempt to capture the channel ports.
Start of the first battle of Warsaw (to 30 October), which saw a German army retreat from Warsaw in the face of overwhelming Russian numbers
End of the first battle of the Aisne (from 12 September)
The raid on Penang was one of the more daring incidents during the cruise of the Emden, the most successful German commerce raider of the First World War.
Official end of the battle of Armentières (from 13 October)
Official end of the battle of Messines (from 12 October)
The second battle of Warsaw (to 25 November 1914), was a German offensive launched to prevent a Russian invasion of Silesia in eastern Germany.
Start of Battle of Lodz (to 25 November), German attempt to prevent Russian attack on Germany
The Battle of Nonne Bosschen was the last major German attack on the British lines during the first battle of Ypres.
The Battle of the Falklands, saw the defeat of a squadron of German cruisers under Admiral Maximilian von Spee
The German raid on the Yorkshire coast of 15-16 December 1914 saw the first civilian casualties on British soil since the French Revolutionary Wars. A squadron of German battlecruisers attacked Scarborough, Hartlepool and Whitby and then slipped past the British force sent to catch it.
The Scarborough Raid was the most controversial part of the German raid on the Yorkshire coast of 15-16 December 1914.
The Hartlepool Raid was the only part of the German raid on the Yorkshire coast of 15-16 December to come up against a defended port.
The Whitby Raid was the final part of the German navy’s raid on the Yorkshire Coast of 15-16 December.
The battle of Bolimov was a minor battle on the eastern front best known for the first use of poisoned gas during the First World War
Fall of Przemysl, 24 September-11 October and 6 November 1914-22 March 1915, after a siege that had lasted, with a short break, for six months.
The battle of Gorlice-Tarnow (to 10 May 1915), was a rare breakthrough battle during the First World War. The German victory at Gorlice-Tarnow threatened the entire Russian line and eventually forced the abandonment of Russian Poland
The second battle of Artois (to 18 June 1915), was the main Allied offensive of 1915 on the Western Front. It ended in costly failure
The battle of Aubers Ridge (to 10 May), was the first British contribution to the wider second battle of Artois. It ended in abject failure
The battle of Festubert (to 27 May 1915), was the second major British contribution to the wider second battle of Artois, and was an important step in the move to a war of attrition
23 June-7 July
18 July-3 August
The siege of Novo-Georgievsk (to 20 August 1915), saw a Russian garrison 90,000 strong captured by the Germans after the fall of Warsaw.
The Battle of Loos, (to 14 October 1915), was the British contribution to the unsuccessful Allied autumn offensives of 1915
The Second Battle of Champagne (to 6 November 1915), saw the failure of the main French effort in the autumn offensive of 1915.
Bulgaria declares war of side of Central Powers (First World War)
End of the Battle of Loos (from 25 September)
18 October-3 November
10 November-2 December
The battle of Agagia (or Aqqaqia) saw the defeat of the Senussi Uprising along the Egyptian coast.
The fifth battle of the Isonzo was a short lived offensive launched at the request of Britain and France
18-26 March 1916
Start of the artillery bombardment before the battle of the Somme.
The first day of the battle of the Somme, on which over 19,000 British soldiers were killed.
The battle of Albert, (to 13 July 1916), is the official name for the British efforts during the first two weeks fighting of the first battle of the Somme. As such it includes the first day of the Somme, the most costly day in British military history and one that has coloured our image of the First World War ever since
The battle of Bazentine Ridge, (to 17 July 1916), was the start of the second phase of the battle of the Somme, designed to break into the German second line.
The battle of Delville Wood, (to 3 September 1916), began as part of the battle of Bazentine Ridge, itself part of the first battle of the Somme.
The battle of Fromelles, (to 20 July), was a minor British attack launched close to Aubers Ridge in order to prevent the Germans moving troops from their quiet sectors to the battle of the Somme.
The battle of Romani, saw the defeat of a Turkish army that was attempting to come within artillery range of the Suez Canal.
9 September 1916
The battle of Ginchy was part of the first battle of the Somme, launched in advance of the main September offensive, the battle of Flers-Courcelette
The battle of Flers-Courcelette, (to 22 September 1916), was the third main phase of the battle of the Somme. It is best known as the first tank battle in history
The battle of the Ancre Heights of (to 11 November 1916) was part of the wider first battle of the Somme. It was fought on the left of the British line of the Somme, with the aim of pinching out a German salient on the Ancre River created by the limited British advances further along the line.
The battle of the Transloy Ridges, (to 20 October 1916), was part of the first battle of the Somme. It was the last officially acknowledged battle fought by the Fourth Army (Rawlinson) although fighting continued on that front into November.
The ninth battle of the Isonzo, was the third of three short-lived offensives launched on the Isonzo front in the autumn of 1916.
United States declares war on Allied side (First World War)
The Second battle of Arras, (to 17 May 1917), was the British element of the Allied spring offensive of 1917. It is best known for the capture of Vimy Ridge by the Canadian Corps.
The Battle of Vimy Ridge (to 13 April 1917), was one of the best planned battles of the entire First World War. Part of the wider Second Battle of Arras it saw the Canadian Corps capture Vimy Ridge in a single day.
The Tenth battle of the Isonzo, (to 8 June 1917), was one of the more succesful of the Isonzo battles, and saw the Italians advance towards Trieste and east from Gorizia before the offensive ran down.
The Battle of the Menin Road Ridge, (to 25 September 1917), marked a change in British tactics during the Third Battle of Ypres and resulted in a small British victory
The battle of Broodseinde was the last of three successful bite and hold battles launched by General Herbert Plumer during the middle phase of the third battle of Ypres
Start of Battle of Caporetto, German and Austrian troops quickly push back Italians. (WWI)
The Second Battle of Passchendaele (to 10 November), was the final phase of the wider Third Battle of Ypres (often known as Passchendaele)
The third battle of Gaza (to 7 November) saw the British under General Allenby finally force the Turks out of their strong positions around Gaza.
The battle of Beersheba was the first part of the wider third battle of Gaza. The British victory was secured by an Australian cavalry charge
The battle of Junction Station saw the British defeat a Turkish attempt to defend the line of the railway to Jerusalem.
The action of El Mughar, was part of the wider battle of Junction Station, which saw the British capture the railway junction that linked the Turkish Seventh Army around Jerusalem with the Eighth Army on the coast.
17-24 November 1917
7-9 December 1917
21-22 December 1917
26-30 December 1917
The Second battle of the Somme (to 5 April), was the first of General Ludendorff’s five great offensives launched during the spring and summer of 1918.
End of the Third Battle of the Aisne, 27 May-3 June 1918
Battle of Château-Thierry of 3-4 June 1918 was part of the Allied response to the German Aisne offensive of 27 May-7 June 1918 and sees an American counterattack on the Marne.
The Battle of Noyon-Montdidier, (to 13 June 1918), was the fourth of General Erich von Ludendorff’s great offensives of the spring and summer of 1918
The Second Battle of the Marne was the turning point of the First World War on the Western Front. It began as a German offensive (the Champagne-Marne Offensive, 15-18 July) but ended with a successful Allied counter-attack (the Aisne-Marne Offensive, 18 July-5 August) which saw the German army pushed back almost to the line it had occupied before their great success during the Third Battle of the Aisne
The Champagne-Marne Offensive (to 18 July 1918), was the last of Ludendorff’s five offensives of 1918 that had come close to breaking the Allied lines
The Meuse-Argonne offensive (to 11 November 1918), was the southern part of the great triple offensive that broke the German lines on the Western Front. It was also the biggest battle fought by the American Expeditionary Force during the war
Armistice with Germany, ends the First World War
End of Meuse-Argonne offensive (from 26 September 1918)
Archaeological evidence indicates that present-day Ghana has been inhabited for many thousand years. The region shares it's early history with all of West Africa. Some of the earliest finds shows trace of settlements along the coastline.
According to the Greek historian Herodot, the Egyptian Pharaoh sends out sailors along the African coastlines about year 600 BC. These Phoenician sailors probably also landed on the Guinea coast.
The early Kingdom of Ghana (sometimes known as "Ghanata" or "Wagadugu") was one of the most powerful African empires for several hundred years. At the time it was far more developed than any European country. The Ghana Empire was in the Sahel: It included most of present-day Senegal and some regions of Mali and Mauritania, but did not reach as far south as what we know as Ghana today. Uses of metals were known, and the Kingdom was well organized, with its laws and economy.
The 13th century: The Kingdom of Ghana is conquered by the Kingdom of Melle. While small and big Kingdoms are dissolved or succeeded by new ones, the population slowly migrates towards south. Tribes and clans are mixed during the passing centuries. Prisoners of war were often kept or sold in North Africa or sometimes even to Europe. These early signs of slave trade happened before the arrival of Europeans to West Africa, but can in no way be compared to what happened later.
Arrival of the Europeans
1471: The Portuguese arrives on the coast of Guinea as the first Europeans.
1482: The Portuguese build their first fortress on the coast. They name it "Elmina" (the mine).
The Ga people had been the last group of people arriving from East (Nigeria). They have settled in their capital of "Great Accra" about 15 km inland, but now builds "Small Accra" directly on the coast as a base for trade with the Portuguese.
Other Europeans arrive. They are all attracted by gold, ivory and timber.
Around 1650: The first Danish ship arrives at the coast. The Danes were the last of the Europeans to Arrive.
1661: The Danish fort "Christiansborg" (sometimes known as Osu Castle) is built in Osu (modern-day Accra). It becomes the home of the Danish governor and later the centre of Danish slave trade. In modern-day Ghana the fort is the residence and office of the president.
THE SLAVE TRADE
Within short time the main merchandise has become human life. Enslaved Africans for plantations in the Americas becomes even more valuable than gold. England, the Netherlands, Portugal, Germany, France, Sweden and Denmark all competes for the trade, which becomes highly organised. They all take part in the more than 350 years of slave trade. With its gold and accessible coastline "Ghana" becomes the centre of all European activity in West Africa.
1700's: Several of the southern kingdoms are deeply involved in the slave trade while others are almost wiped out. Akwamu, Fante and Asante are among those who benefit from the trade. Through their European connections the Asante gets weapons and uses them to conquer more land and fight other kingdoms. The Asante capital of Kumasi is highly developed and ahead of many European cities. ("Ashante" is the European spelled version of the name "Asante")
The Europeans trades weapons and manufactured goods for enslaved Africans, who are transported for about five weeks across the Atlantic Ocean to work on plantations in "the new world". More than two thirds of the Africans died when captured, in the dungeons of the forts or during transport. It is estimated that between 12 and 20 million enslaved Africans are transported across the Atlantic.
March 16, 1792: Denmark decides to stop the so-called "trade with Negroes" to the Caribbean colonies. The King and politicians are under pressure from the growing anti-slave lobby, but the decision is not made for moral reasons. It is based on harsh economic calculations: Denmark simply no longer makes enough profit on the trade.
The new law only mentions import of slaves to the Caribbean islands. It is not a general ban on slavery. Furthermore the law is not to be effective until 1803. Result: In the following ten years the slave traders intensifies their efforts to make as much profit as possible on human lives.
April 2, 1792: Britain passes a law similar to the Danish - with effect from 1807. Both countries laws were a stop for the import of slaves to the colonies, not a decision to actually abolish slavery itself. Within the following years all the European countries and America makes similar laws, but slavery and the trade with people continues to be legal.
1800: Osei Bonsu ascends the Asante throne. He is king of land reaching beyond the borders of present-day Ghana &ndash and still seeks to expand the Asante kingdom.
1803: The Danish ban on import of slaves becomes effective.
1806: The Asante kingdom invades Kingdoms to the south and war breaks out with the Fante confederation which is supported by Britain. The ever expanding Asante are now threatening British commercial interests in the region.
March 25, 1807: The British ban on slave trade from the Gold Coast becomes effective. The British are dominating the region and begins to change business into exploiting cocoa, gold, timber and palm oil.
1824: The Ashantene, Osei Bonsu, dies. The British seeks a chance to break Asante control of the Gold Coast trade and the first Anglo-Asante war breaks out.
1826: War breaks out again and the Asante are forced to give up their claims to areas on the coast.
1833: Slavery is officially abolished in all British colonies. All British-owned slaves are freed.
July 28, 1847: The Danish King decides to abolish slavery in Danish colonies: Children of slaves are from now born to freedom, but the parent-generation is not freed until the following year.
March 1848: Slavery is finally abolished in all Danish territories. All Danish-owned slaves are freed.
March 6, 1850: Denmark sells all their remaining forts and possessions on the Gold Coast to Great Britain for 10,000 pound sterling.
1863: Great Britain dominates the region completely. Only the Asante kingdom is still resisting British control. The British efforts to control the Gold Coast and especially the gold trade results in the third British-Asante war. Asante history records a victory, but they only manage to hold back the enemy for a few more years.
BRITISH CROWN COLONY
1874: The Gold Coast is officially proclaimed a British crown colony. Originally the colony was only a 100 km wide strip along the coast, but the British still seeks control of the Asante kingdom and their wealth of gold. The British attacks again and burns down the Capital of Kumasi. The kings palace is found empty, but the British steals all values they can find.
1877: Accra becomes the capital of the colony.
1884-1885: The Berlin Conference: By Initiative of King Leopold of Belgium, the European countries agrees on the new borders for Africa. Thousands of kingdoms all over Africa are suddenly squeezed into approximately 50 European colonies. No consideration at all is made to the people, cultures and languages. Present-day Ghana is under British control, with the exception of the eastern region being part of German Togoland.
1896: Britain has practically taken control over the Asante kingdom. As a symbolic act the British sends the young Asante king (Nana Ageyman Prempeh I) into exile.
1900: Britain again seeks to humiliate the Asante: The colonial governor Frederick Hodgson demands for the Asante to hand over their Golden stool, which is the ultimate religious and national symbol for the Asante. But the Asante had foreseen this demand and created a fake stool to be given to the British. The provocation's leads to uprising among the Asante. An attack on the British fort in Kumasi is led by the legendary woman Yaa Asantewaa.
1902: What's left of the Asante kingdom has surrendered to the pressure from England. The kingdom is annexed into the British colony and the area north of the kingdom becomes British Protectorate.
1909: Kwame Nkrumah is born in the village Nkroful. He later graduates from Achimota College and continues studies in USA and England.
1918: After World War I the German areas in the East comes under British control. Nationalist movements begins to rise in the region.
"One of the greatest mistakes of the education in the past has been this, that it has taught the African to become European instead of remaining African. This is entirely wrong and the Government recognizes it. In future, our education will aim at making an African remain an African and taking interest in his own country."
Sir Gordon Guggisberg, governor of the Gold Coast in 1920. Quoted from "Africa &ndash A biography of the continent" by John Reader.
1924: The Asantehene is permitted to return to the Gold coast from his exile in the Seychelles, but he is left with no political power.
1925: The first legislative elections are carried out in the Gold Coast.
1933: Accra Breweries opens as the first brewery in West Africa.
1935: The Asante are allowed to have restricted "autonomy" through the Ashanti Confederacy Council.
1946: The colonial powers are weakened after World War 2. USA and USSR pressures for African independence. Ghana's Legislative Council gets a majority of black Africans, when the British little by little gives in to the pressure for African political representation. The rule of the colony is still entirely within the hands of the British though.
1947: United Gold Coast Convention (UGCC) is one of many new political parties striding for independence. None of the parties are formed inside the colony. Kwame Nkrumah is party secretary for UGCC.
February 28, 1948: Riots breaks out in Accra when Police fires at an anti-colonial demonstration. 29 are killed and hundreds are wounded.
1949: Dissatisfied with the efforts of UGCC, Kwame Nkrumah leaves and founds the Convention People's Party (CPP). CCP quickly becomes the major player on the nationalist political scene.
1950: Nkrumah calls for a national strike and is jailed for his demands for independence.
1951: Nkrumah is released from jail after CPP wins the first election for the Legislative Assembly.
1952: Nkrumah becomes the first African prime minister and government leader, but still shares the power with the British governor Sir Charles Arden-Clarke. Nkrumah is re-elected in for the post in 1954 and 1956.
"Ghana our beloved country is free forever! . The independence of Ghana is meaningless unless it is linked up with the total liberation of the African continent"
Kwame Nkrumah speaking on day of independence.
March 6, 1957: Ghana is the first of the colonies in sub-Saharan Africa to gain independence. Africa and the rest of the world follows the creation of the new state with high anticipations. The situation in Ghana inspire nationalist movements all over the continent. The economy seems to be good and promising as Ghana is rich with gemstones, forests and crops. Ghana is the leading cocoa exporter in the world and produces one tenth of the world's gold. 25% of the population is literate (which is high compared to other colonies at the time) and many have an education.
Nkrumah is increasingly popular, but now faces the huge challenges of uniting a country of people that doesn't have that much in common. On the contrary some groups still carry hostility towards each other from centuries of wars and the scars of slave trade. Political parties which are regional or tribal oriented are prohibited to enforce a feeling of national unity.
1958: A new law makes it possible to arrest anyone who is suspected of working against the state. The suspects can be imprisoned up to five years without sentence. Ghana has already started a slow development towards a one-party state.
Industry is at rise in Ghana and work starts for the huge Akosombo Dam to supply energy. To finance the project Nkrumah is forced to accept hard terms from the American company Valco. Ghana's economy and electricity supply is held back from this agreement even today.
1960: Nkrumah is appointed president of the republic.
Economy starts to turn bad and Ghana's debt is rising at high speed. Nkrumah has started a great number of expensive and ambitious projects, but most of them gives no direct profit in return. The more basic agricultural sector is neglected. The end of the optimistic years results in a change in the political climate.
1962: Foreign investors and industry are forced by law to re-invest at least 60 per cent of their profit within Ghana.
August 27th 1963: William Edward Burghardt Du Bois dies in Accra. The African-American W.E.B Du Bois was born as in Massachusetts (1868) and became one of the most important contributors to the Pan-African movement, which again influenced Kwame Nkrumah and the history of Ghana. Du Bois was invited by Nkrumah to settle in Ghana after independence.
1964: Nkrumah suspends the democracy by suspending the constitution. Ghana officially becomes a one-party state and Nkrumah gains the power of a dictator. Criticised by the West, Nkrumah now turns to the Soviet Union and other communist countries.
The economy is out of control and the population is getting poorer. Nkrumah is no longer a popular leader as he hits hard on demonstrations and arrests anyone in opposition.
THE FIRST COUP
February 24th, 1966: A military coup (without blood-shed) ends the rule of Nkrumah and his government. The coup is made by British-trained officers and takes place while Nkrumah is paying an official visit to chairman Mao in Beijing. Nkrumah flights to asylum at his personal friend President Sékou Touré in Guinea. In the following days and weeks all Nkrumah statues in Accra are taken down by the crowds.
The new military government calls itself the National Liberation Council (NLC). It declares that the aim of the coup is to end corruption and change the constitution in order to get Ghana back on a democratic line. The members of the council have a conservative approach and keep strict control with all left-wing politicians and ideologues. All connections to the Soviet Union are broken and technicians from USSR and China are expelled. The west sees this as a new direction in Ghanaian politics and economics.
May 1969: NLC aims to be a provisional government until a new election. Political parties are once again legalised.
THE SECOND REPUBLIC
September 1969: Multi-party elections are held in Ghana and a new civilian government is formed by Dr. Kofi Busia and the Progress Party.
High prices on the cocoa market gives Busia a good start, but in 1971 the prices drop again and the economic situation in Ghana worsens. The government devaluates the Cedi leading to increased prices and general unrest in the population.
1972: Kwame Nkrumah dies in Conakry, Guinea. In spite of his democratic failure he is still respected as the founder of Ghana. His body is later moved and buried in Accra.
January 13, 1972: Forces within the military once again finds that it is time for a change of government and carries out a coup. The National Redemption Council takes control. The result is a growth of corruption in all levels of government and society.
1974: The population shows its dissatisfaction with the government through strikes &ndash mostly arranged by students. The unions get increasing support.
1975: Economy is close to collapse and it is no longer possible to come to agreement within the NRC-government. Acheampong decides to get rid of the government and forms the Supreme Military Council (SMC) with only seven hand-picked members. The opposition is far from happy with the situation, but the only answer from SMC is harassment and jailing of critics without sentence.
July 5, 1978: Acheampong is forced to resign as general William Akuffo takes control of the "Supreme Military Council II". He promises to reinstate a civilian government. Political parties are once again allowed in Ghana and a date for election is set. No other major change happens in the following year and the discontent continues.
May 15, 1979: The young Flight Lieutenant Jerry John Rawlings heads an uprising within the army. The coup attempt is unsuccessful as Rawlings is arrested. Soon after, he is freed again by soldiers supporting him.
June 4, 1979: A few days before the planned election a new military coup is carried out by Jerry Rawlings. The Armed Forces Revolutionary Council (AFRC) takes power, but still has the intention to make place for a democratic election later the same month. The aim of the coup is apparently to ensure free elections and put an end to the corruption and economic chaos. But it is also to prevent the SMC generals from retiring to a life in luxury after having run down the country. Politically and economically Rawlings is inspired by socialist ideas.
June 18, 1979: Dr. Hilla Limann and his People's National Party wins the election, but it is a close call: PNP gets 71 of the 140 seats in parliament.
Rawlings supports the AFRC in its determination to end corruption and restore order and justice before returning Ghana to democracy. The former leaders from the SMC government are tried and executed together with the three former chief of states: Acheampong, Akuffo and Afrifa. Several hundred government officials and businessmen are sent to prison.
THE THIRD REPUBLIC
September 1979: AFRC turns over power to Hilla Limann. Rawlings and his soldiers return to the army.
The new government tries, but not hard enough. It is not able to solve the economic stagnation of Ghana. Necessary, but unpopular economic reforms are given up in fear of unrest and a new coup.
1980: Jerry Rawlings is not forgotten. He gains more and more popularity as he continues to demand an end to corruption. But Limann seems to have forgotten the lessons learned from his predecessors. The corruption returns to society and internal conflicts finally breaks up the ruling party.
December 31, 1981: Jerry Rawlings once again takes power through a military coup. The Provisional National Defence Council (PNDC) is established with Rawlings as chairman. The parliament is dissolved and all political parties forbidden, but Rawlings insists that the (long-term) goal is restoring democracy in Ghana.
In all parts of the country local committees are established to build up democracy at all levels, inspire to public participation and fight corruption. While the committee work gives many Ghanaians a better feeling of responsibility and influence, all political opposition is strictly forbidden.
1982 and 1983: Several coup attempts are made by dissatisfied parts of the army (mainly from the northern regions). None of the coups are successful. Opposition groups operating from Togo almost succeeds in an overthrow. Relations between neighbouring countries Togo and Ghana worsens.
1984: The Ghanaian economy is finally showing signs of improvement, and even though Rawlings has a tough grip on Ghana, he maintains his popularity (first of all among workers and rural population). Rawlings has strong connections to Libya, Cuba and Eastern Europe, but his efforts to improve economy are rewarded with new loans by the IMF. For the following years Ghana continues to have the highest growth rate in Africa. Rawlings speaks strongly against the economic globalisation allowing market prices on Cocoa to determine the future of a developing country like Ghana.
1985: The Preventive Custody Law allows the government to imprison opponents for the sake of "state security". The prisons are crowded with political prisoners.
Major Courage Qarshigah and other officers make an attempt at Rawlings life. They are sentenced and one is found hanged in his prison cell. Amnesty International and the Western donor countries begin to criticise lack of human rights in Ghana.
1990: Rawlings forms the National Commission for Democracy to work out plans for the political future of Ghana.
1992: A new democratic constitution is passed. Political prisoners are freed and parties are allowed. Free press and human rights organisations emerge in Ghana.
THE FOURTH REPUBLIC
November 1992: Multi-party elections in Ghana. Surprisingly Rawlings wins the presidential election with nearly 60% of the votes. The opposition accuses Rawlings of fraud and boycotts the election for parliament. As a result of the boycott Rawlings' National Democratic Congress and its smaller coalition partners are getting all seats. Independent observers approve the elections as being free and fair. Rawlings now has a democratic base to continue the work he started during the long period with a military junta.
During the 90's the political climate between government and opposition slowly improves. Economic growth continues in Ghana, which is still praised by the IMF.
1994: A land conflict between the Ethnic groups of Konkombas and Nunumbas results in the "Guinea Fowl War" in north-eastern Ghana. Ancient conflicts are ignited after a discussion on a market place. Up to 2000 are killed and 150,000 are displaced. A peace treaty is signed, but violence breaks out again several times in the following years.
May 1995: The parliament approves a VAT at 17%, resulting in several demonstrations and some riots, especially in the capital of Accra. The government cancels the unpopular VAT - probably concerned about the forthcoming elections.
1996: Rawlings is re-elected with 57% of the votes. NDC remains the biggest party in parliament, but John Kufuor's New Patriotic Party also has strong representation. The opposition and all observers approve the elections. The West continues to be content and optimistic about the situation in Ghana, even though economic progress is now at a much smaller rate.
Late 1990's: Popularity for NDC is fading as the opposition puts forward accuses of corruption within the government. Rawlings remains popular, but is also personally accused of corruption.
1997: The Ghanaian Kofi Annan is appointed Secretary General of the United Nations, bringing great pride to the country.
March 1998: US President Clinton visits Ghana.
The level of water is falling in the Akosombo reservoirs resulting in power shortage for Ghana. With normal water levels the damn can supply all of Ghana and even sell electricity to Togo and Benin as well -except for the fact that 40% of the electricity is owned by a very hard contract to the American Valco company, which comsumes huge amounts of power for its Aluminium production. Construction of a nuclear power plant is considered by the Ghanaian government, but is found far too expensive. The energy crisis is partly solved by increasing the supply of electricity from Côte d&rsquoIvoire.
January 1999: Members of NDC breaks out and creates the Reform Movement as a large opposition party.
August 1999: Police hits hard on student demonstrations. The demonstrations end when the Universities are forced to close by the government.
NEW PRESIDENT ELECTED
December 2000: Rawlings' presidency ends as the constitution only allows two terms in office. Vice president John Atta Mills is new presidential candidate, but it is John Kufour from NPP who wins elections and becomes the new president.
April 2001: Ghana accepts an IMF/World Bank plan for debt relief.
May 2001: Riots at a football stadium leads to overreaction from the police. 126 are killed as panic breaks out in the stadium.
June 2001: Accra is flooded and up to 100,000 are displaced.
May 2002: A reconciliation commission starts investigating human rights during the many years of military rule.
March 2007: Ghana celebrates 50 years of independence as the first sub-saharan African nation.
December 2008: After having lost Ghana&rsquos two previous elections to outgoing President John Kufuor, opposition candidate John Atta Mills now wins a second round of the presidential election in Ghana. Atta Mills wins over his rival, Nana Akufo-Addo from the ruling NPP party.
2008 December - John Atta Mills elected president.
2009 July - US President Barack Obama visits.
Ghana secures a $600m three-year loan from the International Monetary Fund (IMF).
President Mills ceremonially launches Ghana's oil production
2009 October - Controversy over sale of national communications network Ghana Telecom, allegedly for less that it was worth.
2010 December - Offshore oil production begins.
2011 July - President John Atta Mills chosen as ruling National Democratic Congress party's candidate for the 2012 presidential election, defeating Nana Konadu Agyemang-Rawlings, wife of former President Jerry Rawlings.
2011 August - UK-based oil exploration company Tullow Oil, says it will spend at least $4bn to develop oil fields off the coast of Ghana.
2012 June - Thousands are displaced by communal violence in the east, sparked by the exhumation of the body of a Muslim cleric.
2012 July - President Mills dies. John Mahama becomes interim head of state.
GHANA'S GOLD RUSH
The rising price of gold has drawn thousands of Chinese to Ghana. Many work in unlicensed mines, which the government says damage the economy and the environment, and involve many deaths.
2012 September-October - Ivory Coast closes its borders with Ghana for two weeks after a deadly attack on an army checkpoint blamed on exiled supporters of ousted President Laurent Gbagbo.
2012 October - Ghana becomes embroiled in a row with Argentina after impounding an Argentine naval training vessel on behalf of creditors.
A Chinese boy is killed and some 100 Chinese are detained in an operation against illegal gold mining.
2012 December - President John Mahama wins re-election.
2013 June - Authorities arrest hundreds of Chinese and other migrants working in unlicensed gold mines.
2013 August - President John Mahama is declared winner of 2012 elections by Supreme Court after results were questioned by opposition and a case filed before the court.
Military History Timeline 1900-1924 - History
What roared into the beginning years of the 20s would go south in an instant with the Stock Market Crash of 1929, taking the prosperity of the decade with it, and another decade plus the beginning of a Second World War to begin its correction.
Photo above: Prohibition Era Brewery. Courtesy National Archives. Right: Photo montage, images courtesy Library of Congress.
U.S. Timeline - The 1920s
Prosperity and Its Demise
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January 1, 1920 - For the first time, the 1920 census indicates apopulation in the United States over 100 million people. The 15% increase since the last census now showed a count of 106,021,537. The geographic center of the United States population still remained in Indiana, eight miles south-southeast of Spencer, in Owen County.
May 19, 1921 - A national quota system on the amount of incoming immigrants is established by the United States Congress in the Emergency Quota Act, curbing legal immigration.
February 5, 1922 - Reader's Digest is founded and the first issue published by Dewitt and Lila Wallace.
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January 25, 1924 - The first Winter Olympic Games are held in the French Alps in Chamonix, France with sixteen nations sending athletes to participate, including the United States, which won four medals. Norway, with four gold and eighteen medals total had the most in both categories. The Winter Olympic Games have been held since this year, except during World War II.
July 10, 1924 - The Scopes Trial or Monkey Trial begins and would later convict John T. Scopes of teaching Charles Darwin's evolutionary theory at a Dayton, Tennessee high school, which violated Tennessee law. He is fined $100 for the charge.
March 16, 1926 - Robert H. Goddard demonstrates the viability of the first liquid fueled rockets with his test in Auburn, Massachusetts. The rocket flew one hundred and eighty-four feet over 2.5 seconds.
May 9, 1926 - The first flight to the North Pole and back occurs when pilot Floyd Bennett, with Richard Evelyn Byrd as his navigator, guided a three-engine monoplane. They were awarded the Medal of Honor for their achievement.
May 20, 1926 - Air Commerce Act is passed, providing aid and assistance to the airline industry, plus federal oversight under the Department of Commerce for civil air safety.
March 5, 1927 - The civil war in China prompts one thousand United States marines to land in order to protect property of United States interests.
April 22 to May 5, 1927 - The Great Mississippi Flood occurs, affecting over 700,000.
May 20, 1927 - Charles Lindbergh leaves Roosevelt Field, New York on the first non-stop transatlantic flight in history. He would reach Paris thirty-three and one-half hours later in the Spirit of St. Louis, his aircraft. A ticker tape parade would be held in New York City after his return on June 13.
October 4, 1927 - Work on the gigantic sculpture at Mount Rushmore begins. Sculptor Gutzon Borglum would complete the task of chiseling the busts of four presidents George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Abraham Lincoln, and Theodore Roosevelt, fourteen years later.
October 6, 1927 - The advent of talking pictures emerges. Al Jolson in the Jazz Singer debuts in New York City.
September 7, 1927 - First success in the invention of television occurs by American inventor Philo Taylor Farnsworth. The complete electronic television system would be patented three years later on August 26, 1930.
June 17, 1928 - Amelia Earhart becomes the first woman to fly over the Atlantic Ocean.
November 6, 1928 - Herbert Hoover wins election as President of the United States with an Electoral College victory, 444 to 87 over Democratic candidate Alfred E. Smith, the Catholic governor of New York.
January 15, 1929 - Future Civil Rights leader Martin Luther King is born in his grandfather's house in Atlanta, Georgia.
February 14, 1929 - In Chicago, Illinois, gangsters working for Al Capone kill seven rivals and citizens in the act known as the St. Valentine's Day Massacre.
October 29, 1929 - Postwar prosperity ends in the 1929 Stock Market crash. The plummeting stock prices led to losses between 1929 and 1931 of an estimated $50 billion and started the worst American depression in the nation's history.
Air Force History
The Signal Corps began testing its first airplane at Fort Myer, Va., on Aug. 20, 1908, and on Sept. 9, Lt. Thomas E. Selfridge, flying with Orville Wright, was killed when the plane crashed. He was the first military aviation casualty. After more testing with an improved Wright Flyer, the Army formally accepted this airplane, identified as "Airplane No. 1," on Aug. 2, 1909.
In early 1913, the Army ordered its aviators who were training in Augusta, Ga., and Palm Beach, Fla., to Texas to take part in 2d Division maneuvers. In Galveston on March 3, the Chief Signal Officer designated the assembled men and equipment the "1st Provisional Aero Squadron," with Capt Charles DeF. Chandler as squadron commander.
The 1st Provisional Aero Squadron began flying activities a few days later. On Dec. 4, general orders redesignated the unit as the 1st Aero Squadron, effective Dec. 8, 1913. This first military unit of the U.S. Army devoted exclusively to aviation, today designated the 1st Reconnaissance Squadron, has remained continuously active since its creation. Assigned a role in the Punitive Expedition of the Mexican border in 1916, this squadron became the first air combat unit of the U.S. Army.
Meanwhile, Congress created in the Signal Corps an Aviation Section to replace the Aeronautical Division. Signed by the President, this bill became law on July 18, 1914. It directed the Aviation Section to operate and supervise "all military [U.S. Army] aircraft, including balloons and aeroplanes, all appliances pertaining to said craft, and signaling apparatus of any kind when installed on said craft."
- The section would also train "officers and enlisted men in matters pertaining to military aviation," and thus embraced all facets of the Army's air organization and operation.
- The old Aeronautical Division continued to exist, but operated as the Washington office of the new section.
When World War I broke out in Europe in August 1914, the 1st Aero Squadron represented the entire tactical air strength of the U.S. Army. It counted 12 officers, 54 enlisted men and six aircraft. In December 1915 the Aviation Section consisted of 44 officers, 224 enlisted men and 23 airplanes--still a tiny force when compared to the fledgling air forces of the European powers.
But the war in Europe focused more attention on aviation.
By this time the Aviation Section consisted of the Aeronautical Division, the Signal Corps Aviation School at San Diego, the 1st Aero Squadron (then on duty with the expeditionary force in Mexico), and the 1st Company, 2d Aero Squadron, on duty in the Philippines. In October 1916, Aviation Section plans called for two dozen squadrons--seven for the Regular Army, 12 for the National Guard divisions, and five for coastal defense -- plus balloon units for the field and coast artillery. In December 1916 the seven Regular Army squadrons either had been or were being organized. All 24 squadrons had been formed by early 1917, but the 1st Aero Squadron remained the only one fully organized and equipped. Plans for still greater expansion of the Aviation Section were incomplete when the United States entered World War I on April 6, 1917.
World War I
On May 20, 1918, President Woodrow Wilson issued an executive order transferring aviation from the Signal Corps to two agencies under the Secretary of War: the Bureau of Aircraft Production, headed by Mr. John D. Ryan, and the Division of Military Aeronautics, directed by Maj. Gen. William L. Kenly.
On May 24 the War Department officially recognized these two Army agencies as the Air Service of the U.S. Army. Three months later, on Aug. 27, the President appointed Mr. Ryan Director of the Air Service and Second Assistant Secretary of War.
The dispersal of aero squadrons among various Army organizations during the war made it difficult to coordinate aerial activities, which led to the creation of higher echelon organizations. At the front, squadrons with similar functions were formed into groups, the first organized in April 1918 as I Corps Observation Group. The following month the 1st Pursuit Group was formed, and in July 1918 the American Expeditionary Forces organized its first aircraft unit higher than a group--the 1st Pursuit Wing--made up of the 2d and 3d Pursuit Groups and, later, the 1st Day Bombardment Group. In November 1918 the AEF possessed 14 groups (seven observation, five pursuit and two bombardment).
Following the armistice, demobilization of the Air Service was rapid and thorough.
At war's end the Air Service possessed 185 aero squadrons 44 aero construction 114 aero supply, 11 aero replacement, and 150 spruce production squadrons 86 balloon companies six balloon group headquarters 15 construction companies 55 photographic sections and a few miscellaneous units.
By Nov. 22, 1919, all had been demobilized except one aero construction, one aero replacement, and 22 aero squadrons, 32 balloon companies, 15 photographic sections, and a few miscellaneous units. Between Nov.11, 1918 and June 30, 1920, officer strength plummeted from 19,189 to 1,168, and enlisted strength dropped from 178,149 to 8,428.
Following World War I, the strength of the Air Service matched what Congress considered satisfactory for peacetime.
The Army Reorganization Act of 1920 made the Air Service a combatant arm of the Army and gave the Chief of the Air Service the rank of major general and his assistant chief the rank of brigadier general. Tactical air units in the United States were placed under the nine U.S. Army corps area commanders where they continued to be employed primarily in support of the ground forces. The Chief of the Air Service retained command of various training schools, depots and other activities exempted from Army corps control.
During most of the 1920s, the total offensive strength of the Air Service in the United States consisted of one pursuit, one attack and one bombardment group. Overseas, the Canal Zone and the Philippines each had assigned one pursuit and one bombardment squadron with two squadrons of each type stationed in the Hawaiian Islands. The Air Service focused initially on observation and pursuit aviation, with major aeronautical development efforts concentrated in the Engineering Division at McCook Field, Dayton, Ohio.
The formal training establishment took shape during the 1920s. The Air Service concentrated flying training in Texas. Technical schools for officers and enlisted men were at Chanute Field, Ill. The Air Service (later, Air Corps) Tactical School trained officers to command higher units and taught the employment of military aviation. First located at Langley Field, Va., this school moved to Maxwell Field, Ala. in 1931.
The Air Corps Act of 1926 changed the name of the Air Service to Air Corps, but left unaltered its status as a combatant arm of the U.S. Army.
The act also established the Office of Assistant Secretary of War for Air. The Air Corps had at this time 919 officers and 8,725 enlisted men, and its "modern aeronautical equipment" consisted of 60 pursuit planes and 169 observation planes total serviceable aircraft of all types numbered less than 1,000.
In August 1926 the Army established the Air Corps Training Center in San Antonio, Texas. A few weeks later, on Oct. 15, the logistical organization was placed on firmer footing with the establishment of the Materiel Division, Air Corps, at Dayton, Ohio. A year later this division moved to nearby Wright Field, thereafter the primary base for air logistics.
On March 1, 1935, the General Headquarters Air Force, which had existed in gestation since Oct.1, 1933, became operational and assumed command and control over Air Corps tactical units. Tactical units, less some observation squadrons scattered throughout the nine Army corps areas, transferred to this initial air force.
The three GHQAF wings were located at Langley Field, Va. Barksdale Field, La. and March Field, Calif. The Office of the Chief of the Air Corps and GHQAF existed on the same command echelon, each reporting separately to the Army Chief of Staff. The GHQAF Commander directed tactical training and operations, while the Chief of the Air Corps maintained control over procurement, supply, training schools and doctrine development. On March 1, 1939, the Chief of the Air Corps assumed control over the GHQAF, centralizing command of the entire air arm.
President Franklin D. Roosevelt acknowledged the growing importance of airpower, recognized that the United States might be drawn into a European war. Assured of a favorable reception in the White House, the Air Corps prepared plans in October 1938 for a force of some 7,000 aircraft.
Soon afterwards, President Roosevelt asked the War Department to prepare a program for an Air Corps composed of 10,000 airplanes, of which 7,500 would be combat aircraft.
In a special message to Congress on January 12, 1939, the President formally requested this program. Congress responded on April 3, authorizing $300 million for an Air Corps "not to exceed 6,000 serviceable airplanes."
World War II
Beginning in September 1939, the German army and the German air force rapidly conquered Poland, Norway, Holland, Belgium, France and within one year had driven the British off the continent. Leaders of the Air Corps now found themselves in the novel position of receiving practically anything they requested. Plans soon called for 54 combat groups. This program was hardly underway before revised plans called for 84 combat groups equipped with 7,800 aircraft and manned by 400,000 troops by June 30, 1942. All told, U.S. Army air forces strength in World War II would swell from 26,500 men and 2,200 aircraft in 1939 to 2,253,000 men and women and 63,715 aircraft in 1945.
Both necessity and desire thus caused a blitz of organizational changes from 1940 through 1942. On November 19, 1940, the General Headquarters Air Force was removed from the jurisdiction of the Chief of the Air Corps and given separate status under the commander of the Army Field Forces. Seven months later, these air combat forces returned to the command of air leaders as Gen. George C. Marshall, U.S. Army Chief of Staff, established the Army Air Forces on June 20, 1941, to control both the Air Corps and the Air Force Combat Command.
Early in 1941, the War Department instituted a series of actions to create a hierarchy for noncombat activities. It set up a command eventually designated Flying Training Command to direct new programs for training ground crews and technicians. The next year, the new command assumed responsibility for pilot and aircrew training. In mid-1942 the War Department established the Air Corps Ferrying Command to fly aircraft overseas for delivery to the British and other Allies. As the functions of the Ferrying Command expanded, it was redesignated as the Air Transport Command.
The War Department reorganization on March 9, 1942, created three autonomous U.S. Army Commands: Army Ground Forces, Services of Supply (later, in 1943, Army Service Forces), and Army Air Forces. This administrative reorganization did not affect the status of the Air Corps as a combatant arm of the US Army.
Before 1939 the Army's air arm was a fledgling organization by the end of the war the Army Air Forces had become a major military organization comprised of many air forces, commands, divisions, wings, groups, and squadrons, plus an assortment of other organizations.
Rapid demobilization of forces immediately after World War II, although sharply reducing the size of the Army Air Forces, left untouched the nucleus of the postwar United States Air Force (USAF). A War Department letter of March 21, 1946, created two new commands and redesignated an existing one: Continental Air Forces was redesignated Strategic Air Command, and the resources of what had been Continental Air Forces were divided among Strategic Air Command and the two newcomers - Air Defense Command and Tactical Air Command. These three commands and the older Air Transport Command represented respectively the strategic, tactical, defense, and airlift missions that provided the foundation for building the postwar, independent Air Force.
An Independent Force
The National Security Act of 1947 became law on July 26, 1947. It created the Department of the Air Force, headed by a Secretary of the Air Force.
Under the Department of the Air Force, the act established the United States Air Force, headed by the Chief of Staff, USAF. On Sept. 18, 1947, W. Stuart Symington became Secretary of the Air Force, and on Sept. 26, Gen. Carl A. Spaatz became the USAF's first Chief of Staff.
- Since the Civil War, 30,000 African-American teachers had been trained and put to work in the South. The majority of blacks had become literate. 
- 's autobiography Up from Slavery is published. , senator from South Carolina, comments on Theodore Roosevelt's dining with Booker T. Washington: “The action of President Roosevelt in entertaining that nigger will necessitate our killing a thousand niggers in the South before they learn their place again.” 
- May 15 – Sigma Pi Phi, the first African-American Greek-letter organization, is founded by African-American men as a professional organization, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. hires its first black postman.
- The Brownsville Affair, which eventually involves President Roosevelt. 
- December 4 – African-American men found Alpha Phi Alpha at Cornell University, the first intercollegiate fraternity for African-American men.
- December 26 – Jack Johnson wins the World Heavyweight Title. at Howard University African-American college women found the first college sorority for African-American women.
- February 12 – Planned first meeting of group which would become the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), an interracial group devoted to civil rights. The meeting actually occurs on May 31, but February 12 is normally cited as the NAACP's founding date.
- May 31 – The National Negro Committee meets and is formed it will be the precursor to the NAACP.
- May 30 – The National Negro Committee chooses "National Association for the Advancement of Colored People" as its organization name.
- September 29 – Committee on Urban Conditions Among Negroes formed the next year it will merge with other groups to form the National Urban League.
- The NAACP begins publishing The Crisis.
- January 5 – Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity, Inc. was founded at Indiana University.
- November 17 – Omega Psi Phi Fraternity, Inc., which is the first African-American Greek-lettered organization founded at an HBCU (Howard University).
- The Moorish Science Temple of America, a religious organization, is founded by Noble Drew Ali (Timothy Drew).
- January 13 – Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc., was founded at Howard University
1914 January 9 – Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity, Inc. was founded at Howard University by A. Langston Taylor, Leonard F. Morse, and Charles I. Brown
The American Gay Rights Movement: A Timeline
This timeline provides information about the gay rights movement in the United States from 1924 to the present: including the Stonewall riots the contributions of Harvey Milk the "Don't Ask, Don't Tell" policy the first civil unions the legalization of same-sex marriage in Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York and more.
1924 The Society for Human Rights in Chicago becomes the country's earliest known gay rights organization.
1948 Alfred Kinsey publishes Sexual Behavior in the Human Male, revealing to the public that homosexuality is far more widespread than was commonly believed. 1951 The Mattachine Society, the first national gay rights organization, is formed by Harry Hay, considered by many to be the founder of the gay rights movement. 1955 The first lesbian-rights organization in the United States, the Daughters of Bilitis, was established in San Francisco in 1955. 1956 The Daughters of Bilitis, a pioneering national lesbian organization, is founded. 1958 Joe Cino, an Italian-American theater producer, opens Caffe Cino. Caffe Cino is credited with starting the Off-Off-Broadway theater movement. Six years after Caffe Cino opens, it hosts the first gay plays, The Madness of Lady Bright, by Lanford Wilson, and The Haunted Host, by Robert Patrick. 1962 Illinois becomes the first state in the U.S. to decriminalize homosexual acts between consenting adults in private. 1969 The Stonewall riots transform the gay rights movement from one limited to a small number of activists into a widespread protest for equal rights and acceptance. Patrons of a gay bar in New York's Greenwich Village, the Stonewall Inn, fight back during a police raid on June 27, sparking three days of riots. 1973 The American Psychiatric Association removes homosexuality from its official list of mental disorders. Harvey Milk runs for city supervisor in San Francisco. He runs on a socially liberal platform and opposes government involvement in personal sexual matters. Milk comes in 10th out of 32 candidates, earning 16,900 votes, winning the Castro District and other liberal neighborhoods. He receives a lot of media attention for his passionate speeches, brave political stance, and media skills. 1976 San Francisco Mayor George Moscone appoints Harvey Milk to the Board of Permit Appeals, making Milk the first openly gay city commissioner in the United States. Milk decides to run for the California State Assembly and Moscone is forced to fire him from the Board of Permit Appeals after just five weeks. Milk loses the State Assembly race by fewer than 4,000 votes. Believing the Alice B. Toklas LGBT Democratic Club will never support him politically, Milk co-founds the San Francisco Gay Democratic Club after his election loss. 1977 Activists in Miami, Florida pass a civil rights ordinance making sexual orientation discrimination illegal in Dade County. Save Our Children, a campaign by a Christian fundamentalist group and headed by singer Anita Bryant, is launched in response to the ordinance. In the largest special election of any in Dade County history, 70% vote to overturn the ordinance. It is a crushing defeat for gay activists. 1978 On January 8, Harvey Milk makes national news when he is sworn in as a member of the San Francisco Board of Supervisors. Running against 16 other candidates, he wins the election by 30 percent. Milk begins his term by sponsoring a civil rights bill that outlaws sexual orientation discrimination. Only one supervisor votes against it and Mayor Moscone signs it into law. John Briggs drops out of the California governor's race, but receives support for Proposition 6, also known as the Briggs Initiative, a proposal to fire any teacher or school employee who publicly supports gay rights. Harvey Milk campaigns against the bill and attends every event hosted by Briggs. In the summer, attendance greatly increases at Gay Pride marches in San Francisco and Los Angeles, partly in response to Briggs. President Jimmy Carter, former Governor Ronald Reagan, and Governor Jerry Brown speak out against the proposition. On November 7, voters reject the proposition by more than a million votes. On November 27, Harvey Milk and Mayor George Moscone are assassinated by Dan White, another San Francisco city supervisor, who had recently resigned and wanted his job back, but was being passed over because he wasn't the best fit for the liberal leaning Board of Supervisors and the ethnic diversity in White's district. San Francisco pays tribute to Harvey Milk by naming several locations after him, included Harvey Milk Plaza at the intersection of Market and Castro streets. The San Francisco Gay Democratic Club changes its name to the Harvey Milk Memorial Gay Democratic Club. 1979 About 75,000 people participated in the National March on Washington for Lesbian and Gay Rights in Washington, D.C., in October. It was the largest political gathering in support of LGBT rights to date. 1980 At the 1980 Democratic National Convention held at New York City's Madison Square Garden, Democrats took a stance supporting gay rights, adding the following to their plank: "All groups must be protected from discrimination based on race, color, religion, national origin, language, age, sex or sexual orientation." 1982 Wisconsin becomes the first state to outlaw discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation. 1984 The city of Berkeley, California, becomes the first city to offer its employees domestic-partnership benefits. 1993 The ?Don't Ask, Don't Tell? policy is instituted for the U.S. military, permitting gay mento serve in the military but banning homosexual activity. President Clinton's original intention to revoke the prohibition against gay menin the military was met with stiff opposition this compromise, which has led to the discharge of thousands of men and women in the armed forces, was the result. On April 25, an estimated 800,000 to one million people participate in the March on Washington for Lesbian, Gay, and Bi Equal Rights and Liberation. Several events such as art and history exhibits, public service outings and workshops are held throughout Washington, DC leading up the event. Jesse Jackson, RuPaul, Martina Navratilova, and Eartha Kitt are among the speakers and performers at a rally after the march. The march is a response to ?Don't Ask Don't Tell?, Amendment 2 in Colorado, as well as rising hate crimes and ongoing discrimination against the LGBT community. 1996 In Romer v. Evans, the Supreme Court strikes down Colorado's Amendment 2, which denied gayand lesbian peopleprotections against discrimination, calling them ?special rights.? According to Justice Anthony Kennedy, ?We find nothing special in the protections Amendment 2 withholds. These protections . . . constitute ordinary civil life in a free society.? 2000 Vermont becomes the first state in the country to legally recognize civil unions between gay or lesbian couples. The law states that these ?couples would be entitled to the same benefits, privileges, and responsibilities as spouses.? It stops short of referring to same-sex unions as marriage, which the state defines as heterosexual. 2003 The U.S. Supreme Court rules in Lawrence v. Texas that sodomy laws in the U.S. are unconstitutional. Justice Anthony Kennedy wrote, ?Liberty presumes an autonomy of self that includes freedom of thought, belief, expression, and certain intimate conduct.? In November, the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court ruled that barring gayand lesbian peoplefrom marrying violates the state constitution. The Massachusetts Chief Justice concluded that to ?deny the protections, benefits, and obligations conferred by civil marriage? to gay couples was unconstitutional because it denied ?the dignity and equality of all individuals? and made them ?second-class citizens.? Strong opposition followed the ruling. 2004 On May 17, same-sex marriages become legal in Massachusetts. 2005 Civil unions become legal in Connecticut in October. 2006 Civil unions become legal in New Jersey in December. 2007 In November, the House of Representatives approves a bill ensuring equal rights in the workplace for gay men, lesbians, and bisexuals. 2008 In February, a New York State appeals court unanimously votes that valid same-sex marriages performed in other states must be recognized by employers in New York, granting same-sex couples the same rights as other couples. In February, the state of Oregon passes a law that allows same-sex couples to register as domestic partners allowing them some spousal rights of married couples. On May 15, the California Supreme Court rules that same-sex couples have a constitutional right to marry. By November 3rd, more than 18,000 same-sex couples have married. On November 4, California voters approved a ban on same-sex marriage called Proposition 8. The attorney general of California, Jerry Brown, asked the state's Supreme Court to review the constitutionality of Proposition 8. The ban throws into question the validity of the more than 18,000 marriages already performed, but Attorney General Brown reiterated in a news release that he believed the same-sex marriages performed in California before November 4 should remain valid, and the California Supreme Court, which upheld the ban in May 2009, agreed, allowing those couples married under the old law to remain that way. November 4, voters in California, Arizona, and Florida approved the passage of measures that ban same-sex marriage. Arkansas passed a measure intended to bar gay men and lesbians from adopting children. On October 10, the Supreme Court of Connecticut rules that same-sex couples have the right to marry. This makes Connecticut the second state, after Massachusetts, to legalize civil marriage for same-sex couples. The court rules that the state cannot deny gay and lesbian couples the freedom to marry under Connecticut's constitution, and that the state's civil union law does not provide same-sex couples with the same rights as heterosexual couples. On November 12, same-sex marriages begin to be officially performed in Connecticut. 2009 On April 3, the Iowa Supreme Court unanimously rejects the state law banning same-sex marriage. Twenty-one days later, county recorders are required to issue marriage licenses to same-sex couples. On April 7, the Vermont Legislature votes to override Gov. Jim Douglas's veto of a bill allowing gayand lesbian peopleto marry, legalizing same-sex marriage. It is the first state to legalize gay marriage through the legislature the courts of the other states in which the marriage is legal?Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Iowa?gave approval. On May 6, the governor of Maine legalized same-sex marriage in that state in Maine however, citizens voted to overturn that law when they went to the polls in November, and Maine became the 31st state to ban the practice. On June 3, New Hampshire governor John Lynch signs legislation allowing same-sex marriage. The law stipulates that religious organizations and their employees will not be required to participate in the ceremonies. New Hampshire is the sixth state in the nation to allow same-sex marriage. On June 17, President Obama signs a referendum allowing the same-sex partners of federal employees to receive benefits. They will not be allowed full health coverage, however. This is Obama's first major initiative in his campaign promise to improve gay rights. On August 12, President Obama posthumously awards Harvey Milk the Presidential Medal of Freedom. 2010 March 3, Congress approves a law signed in December 2009 that legalizes same-sex marriage in the District of Columbia. August 4, Chief U.S. District Judge Vaughn Walker rules that Proposition 8, the 2008 referendum that banned same-sex marriage in California, violates the 14th Amendment's equal protection clause. "Proposition 8 singles out gays and lesbians and legitimates their unequal treatment," Vaughn writes. "Proposition 8 perpetuates the stereotype that gays and lesbians are incapable of forming long-term loving relationships and that gays and lesbians are not good parents." December 18, the U.S. Senate votes 65 to 31 in favor of repealing Don't Ask, Don't Tell, the Clinton-era military policy that forbids openly gay men and women from serving in the military. Eight Republicans side with the Democrats to strike down the ban. The ban will not be lifted officially until President Obama, Defense Secretary Robert Gates, and Admiral Mike Mullen, the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, agree that the military is ready to enact the change and that it won't affect military readiness. On Dec. 18, President Obama officially repeals the "Don't Ask, Don't Tell" military policy. 2011 June 24, New York passes a law to allow same-sex marriage. New York is now the largest state that allows gay and lesbian couples to marry. The vote comes on the eve of the city's annual Gay Pride Parade and gives new momentum to the national gay-rights movement. The marriage bill is approved with a 33 to 29 vote. Cheering supporters greet Gov. Andrew Cuomo as he arrives on the Senate floor to sign the measure at 11:55pm, just moments after the vote. After making same-sex marriage one of his top priorities, Cuomo emerges as a true champion of gay rights. 2012 February 7, the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals in California rules 2?1 that Proposition 8, the 2008 referendum that banned same-sex marriage in state, is unconstitutional because it violates the Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment. In the ruling, the court says, the law "operates with no apparent purpose but to impose on gays and lesbians, through the public law, a majority's private disapproval of them and their relationships." 1966 The world's first the transgender organization, the National Transsexual Counseling Unit, was established in San Francisco. February 13, Washington becomes the seventh state to legalize gay marriage. March 1, Maryland passes legislation to legalize gay marriage, becoming the eighth state to do so. May 9, President Barack Obama endorses same-sex marriage. "It is important for me to go ahead and affirm that I think same-sex couples should be able to get married," he said. He makes the statement days after Vice President Joe Biden and Secretary of Education Arne Duncan both came out in support of gay marriage. Nov. 6, Tammy Baldwin, a seven-term Democratic congresswoman from Wisconsin, prevails over former governor Tommy Thompson in the race for U.S. Senate and becomes the first openly gay politician elected to the Senate. Also on Election Day, gay marriage is approved in a popular vote for the first time. Maine and Maryland vote in favor of allowing same-sex marriage. In addition, voters in Minnesota reject a measure to ban same-sex marriage. 2013 Feb. 27, in a policy shift for party members, several Republicans back a legal brief asking the Supreme Court to rule that same-sex marriage is a constitutional right. More than 100 Republicans are listed on the brief, including former New Hampshire Congressman Charles Bass and Beth Myers. Myers was a key adviser to Mitt Romney during his 2012 presidential campaign. The brief is filed as the U.S. Supreme Court prepares to consider overturning Proposition 8, the California initiative banning same-sex marriage, as well as overturning the Defense of Marriage Act, a federal law passed during Bill Clinton's presidency, which defines marriage as between a man and a woman. March 26, the Supreme Court begins two days of historical debate over gay marriage. During the debate, the Supreme Court consider overturning Proposition 8, the California initiative banning same-sex marriage, and the Defense of Marriage Act, a federal law passed during Bill Clinton's presidency, which defines marriage as between a man and a woman. The Supreme Court's decision will be announced in June 2013. April 29, Jason Collins of the NBA's Washington Wizards announces in an essay in Sports Illustrated that he is gay. "I'm a 34-year-old N.B.A. center. I'm black and I'm gay," he writes. "I've reached that enviable state in life in which I can do pretty much what I want. And what I want is to continue to play basketball. I still love the game, and I still have something to offer. My coaches and teammates recognize that. At the same time, I want to be genuine and authentic and truthful." Collins is the first active athlete in the NBA, NFL, NHL, or MLB to make the announcement. May 2, after same-sex marriage legislation passes in both houses of Rhode Island's legislature, Governor Lincoln Chafee signs it into law. The new law, legalizing same-sex marriage, goes into effect on August 1, 2013. May 7, Governor Jack Markell signs the Civil Marriage Equality and Religious Freedom act, legalizing same-sex marriage for the state of Delaware. The new law goes into effect on July 1, 2013. May 13, in Minnesota, the State Senate votes 37 to 30 in favor of legalizing same-sex marriage. The vote comes a week after it passes in the House. Governor Mark Dayton, a supporter of same-sex marriage, says he will sign the bill the following afternoon. Gay couples will be able to marry in Minnesota in August 2013. June 26, the Supreme Court rules that the 1996 Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) is unconstitutional. In a 5 to 4 vote, the court rules that DOMA violates the rights of gayand lesbian people. The court also rules that the law interferes with the states' rights to define marriage. It is the first case ever on the issue of gay marriage for the Supreme Court. Chief Justice John G. Roberts, Jr. votes against striking it down as does Antonin Scalia, Samuel Alito and Clarence Thomas. However, conservative-leaning Justice Anthony M. Kennedy votes with his liberal colleagues to overturn DOMA. July 17, Queen Elizabeth II approves a same-sex marriage bill for England and Wales. Her approval comes a day after it passes in Parliament. While the queen's approval is simply a formality, her quick response clears the way for the first gay marriages to happen as soon as 2014 in England and Wales. The bill allows same-sex couples to marry in both religious and civil ceremonies. It also allows couples currently in a civil partnership to convert it into a marriage. Scotland is currently considering its own new legislation on same-sex marriage. Aug. 1, Minnesota and Rhode Island begin issuing marriage licenses to same-sex couples this month. Oct. 21, in an unanimous vote, the New Jersey Supreme Court rejects Gov. Chris Christie's request to delay the implementation date of same-sex weddings. Same-sex couples in New Jersey begin to marry. Just hours later, Christie drops his appeal to legalize same-sex marriages. Therefore, New Jersey becomes the 14th state to recognize same-sex marriages. To see a current list of all the states that have legalized same-sex marriage, go here. Nov. 5, Illinois becomes the 15th state to recognize same-sex marriages when the House of Representatives approves the Religious Freedom and Marriage Fairness Act, which passed the state Senate in February 2013. Governor Pat Quinn, a strong supporter of same-sex marriage, will sign it into law. The new law will be implemented on June 1, 2014. Nov. 12, Hawaii becomes the 16th state to recognize same-sex marriages when the Senate passes a gay marriage bill, which had already passed in the House. Governor Neil Abercrombie, a vocal supporter of gay marriage, says he will sign the bill. Beginning December 2, gay couples who are residents of Hawaii as well as tourists can marry in the state. Hawaii is already a very popular state for destination weddings. State Senator J. Kalani English says, "This is nothing more than the expansion of aloha in Hawaii." To see a current list of all the states that have legalized same-sex marriage, go here. 2014 Jan. 6, The United States Supreme Court blocks any further same-sex marriages in Utah while state officials appeal the decision made by Judge Shelby in late December 2013. The block creates legal limbo for the 1,300 same-sex couples who have received marriage licenses since Judge Shelby's ruling. Jan. 10, The Obama administration announces that the federal government will recognize the marriages of the 1,300 same-sex couples in Utah even though the state government has currently decided not to do so. In a video announcement on the Justice Department website, Attorney General Eric Holder says, "I am confirming today that, for purposes of federal law, these marriages will be recognized as lawful and considered eligible for all relevant federal benefits on the same terms as other same-sex marriages. These families should not be asked to endure uncertainty regarding their status as the litigation unfolds." With federal approval, same-sex couples will be able to receive spousal benefits, like health insurance for federal employees and filing joint federal income tax returns. May 19, Same-sex marriage becomes legal in Oregon when a U.S. federal district judge rules that the state's 2004 constitutional amendment banning same-sex marriage violates the Equal Protection clause in the U.S. Constitution. May 20, A judge strikes down the same-sex marriage ban in Pennsylvania, making the state the 18th to legalize gay marriage. The judge rules that Pennsylvania's 1996 ban on same-sex marriage is unconstitutional. The state is the last in the Northeast to legalize same-sex marriage. Before now, the state did not even recognize domestic partnerships or civil unions. Oct. 6, The U.S. Supreme Court declines to hear appeals of rulings in Indiana, Oklahoma, Utah, Virginia, and Wisconsin that allowed same-sex marriage. The move paves the way for same-sex marriages in the five states. In fact, Virginia announced that unions would begin that day. Nov. 12, The U.S. Supreme Court denies a request to block same-sex marriage in Kansas. Nov. 19, A federal judge strikes down Montana's ban that same-sex marriage is unconstitutional. Nov. 20, The U.S. Supreme Court denies a request to block same-sex marriage in South Carolina. The ruling means South Carolina becomes the 35th U.S. state where same-sex marriage is legal. 2015 June 26, The U.S. Supreme Court ruled, 5?4, in Obergefell v. Hodges that same-sex couples have the fundamental right to marry and that states cannot say that marriage is reserved for heterosexual couples. "Under the Constitution, same-sex couples seek in marriage the same legal treatment as opposite-sex couples, and it would disparage their choices and diminish their personhood to deny them this right," Justice Anthony Kennedy wrote in the majority opinion. July 27, The Boy Scouts of America (BSA) ended its ban on gay adult leaders. The new policy was approved by the BSA National Executive Board by a 45-12 vote. The new policy did still allow church-sponsored Scout groups to ban gay adults for religious reasons. 2016 In the year since the June 26, 2015 landmark Supreme Court decision Obergefell v. Hodges that extended the right for same-sex couples to marry nationwide, the LGBT community has been fighting against discrimination in employment, housing and public accommodations. On May 13, 2016, President Obama weighed in on the "toilet wars"?legislation being hashed out in some states about which bathrooms transgender people have the right to use?with the guidelines: students may use bathrooms according to their self-identified gender.
Go to International Policies on Same-Sex Marriage for an updated list on which countries have legalized gay marriage.
23 August 1914
British Expeditionary Force meets the German army at Mons
A British Expeditionary Force (BEF) of over 100,000 men was sent to repel the German invasion of France. It retreated after an initial engagement close to the Belgian border at Mons, then took part in a successful counter-attack on the river Marne in early September. This resistance by the BEF, Belgian and French forces frustrated Germany's 'Schlieffen Plan' for quickly neutralising France. Already fighting Russia, Germany now faced a trench-based war of attrition on two fronts.
History of US Air Force Uniforms
The Air Force did not officially become its own branch of the military until 1947, but distinct uniforms were being designed as early as 1945. By 1946, the leaders of the fledgling organization determined that Air Force uniforms would be blue. Although President Truman approved the plan in 1948, Congress struck down the idea, citing expenses as a primary concern.
Initial plans for the Air Force uniform included a preference for minimalism. According to a memo from the Office of Air Quartermaster in 1946, "Insignia and accessories of all types [shall] be limited to an absolute minimum. . To keep the [esprit] de corps of the Air Force at top level . all personnel [should] be permitted to wear the same uniform with only the necessary military command requirements."
This caused some pushback from others within the Air Force. Many wanted the uniforms to feature similar iconography and distinctions as other branches of the U.S. military. During the initial debates, then-Maj. Gen. Hugh J. Knerr is quoted as asking, "Does the Air Force want a uniform . decorated with devices and gadgets . traditional to the military service of the past, or . a more subdued uniform . adapted to a technical future?"
It wasn't until 1950 that the distinctive Air Force blue cloth was introduced. Before an official pattern was designed, Air Force personnel wore an olive green drab uniform and were allowed to do so until 1952.
In 1969, the Air Force uniforms switched over to the Gen. John P. McConnell pattern. It differed little from its predecessor but underwent small changes during its 25 years in service. Notable changes included slight color adjustments, insignia modifications and changes in the uniform's material.
The so-called "clean uniform" aesthetic wavered little even into the 1960s. Debates continued and different movements to allow for more distinctions and honors were formed, but little changed. During a graduation ceremony in 1962, then-General Curtis LeMay awarded ribbons to NCO graduates, but warned that the move "should not be interpreted as a departure from a clean uniform policy."
One of the most striking changes in Air Force uniforms came in 1991 under the authority of Gen. Merrill A. McPeak. The new jacket featured three buttons instead of four, epaulets were taken away, and only a single breast pocket remained. This version only lasted three years until the modern version was issued for general use.
Considered to have been implemented in 1991 as well, the modern Air Force dress blues have endured.
The Airman Battle Uniform or "Tiger Stripe," which replaced the Battle Dress Uniform and the Desert Camouflage in 2011, was retired effective April 1, 2021, and replaced with the Operational Camouflage Uniform, or OCP.
In the past couple of years, the Air Force has also updated other facets of its uniform policy several times, such as recently revealing its new PT uniform that is expected to be available in 2022. And, in 2020, a new state-of-the-art flight suit was introduced.
Chronology: A History of the Shiite-Sunni Split
A painting depicts the battle of Karbala in 680, in which Imam Hussein engaged a superior Arab army and was killed in battle.
More About the Series
The division of Islam into Sunni and Shiite branches goes far back in Muslim history to the aftermath of the death of the Prophet Muhammad. Its repercussions have rippled through history, with periods of peace and periods of war. With the recent turmoil, the conflict between Shiite and Sunni is once again a driving force behind events in the Middle East. Read a chronology:
570: The Prophet Muhammad is born.
598: Ali, who will become the fourth caliph and the first Shiite Imam, is born.
610: The year Muslims cite as the beginning of Muhammad's mission and revelation of the Quran.
613: The public preaching of Islam begins.
630: The Muslims, led by Muhammad, conquer Mecca.
632: Muhammad dies. Abu Bakr is chosen as caliph, his successor. A minority favors Ali. They become known as Shiat Ali, or the partisans of Ali.
656: Ali becomes the fourth caliph after his predecessor is assassinated. Some among the Muslims rebel against him.
661: Violence and turmoil spread among the Muslims Ali is assassinated.
680: Hussein, son of Ali, marches against the superior army of the caliph at Karbala in Iraq. He is defeated, his army massacred, and he is beheaded. The split between Shiites and Sunnis deepens. Shiites consider Ali their first imam, Hussein the third.
873: The 11th Shiite Imam dies. No one succeeds him.
873-940: In the period, known as the Lesser Occultation, the son of the 11th Imam disappears, leaving his representatives to head the Shiite faith.
940: The Greater Occultation of the 12th or Hidden Imam begins. No imam or representative presides over the Shiite faithful.
1258: The Mongols, led by Hulagu, destroy Baghdad, ending the Sunni Arab caliphate.
1501: Ismail I establishes the Safavid dynasty in Persia and declares Shiism the state religion.
1900: Ruhollah Khomeini is born in Persia.
1920-1922: Arabs, both Shiite and Sunni, revolt against British control of Iraq.
1922-1924: Kemal Ataturk abolishes the Ottoman sultanate and the Turkish Sunni caliphate.
1925: Reza Khan seizes power in Persia, declares himself shah, establishing the Pahlavi dynasty.
1932: Iraq becomes an independent nation, under King Faisal, a Sunni Arab.
1935: Persia is renamed Iran.
1941: Reza Shah abdicates throne in favor of his son Mohammad Reza Shah. British and Soviet military forces occupy Iran.
1953: A joint CIA/British intelligence operation in Iran keeps the shah on the throne and ousts nationalist Prime Minister Mohammad Mossadegh.
1963: Amid widespread protests in Iran against the shah, Ayatollah Khomeini is arrested, then exiled to Najaf in Iraq.
1967: Israel defeats Egypt, Syria and Jordan in the Six-Day War.
1968: The Baath Party seizes power in Iraq.
1973: Israel defeats Egypt and Syria in the Yom Kippur War.
1978-79: Widespread protests force the shah to abdicate and flee Iran. Ayatollah Khomeini returns to Iran to lead the revolution.
1979: Saddam Hussein seizes power, becomes president of Iraq. Iranian revolutionary students seize the U.S. Embassy in Tehran and take diplomats hostage. They are released in January 1981.
1980: Saddam orders the Iraqi army to attack Iran.
1980-1988: Iran-Iraq War. Hundreds of thousands die on each side and the war ends in a stalemate.
1982: Israel invades Lebanon, seizes Beirut. Hezbollah is formed in Lebanon.
1983: Suicide truck bombers, believed to be Hezbollah, kill 241 American servicemen in Beirut.
1989: Ayatollah Khomeini dies in Iran.
1990: Saddam orders his army to seize Kuwait.
1991: The U.S. military ousts the Iraqi army from Kuwait. Shiites of southern Iraq rebel against Saddam, who puts down the rebellion brutally. Thousands of Shiites are killed.
1991-2003: Iraq is placed under economic sanctions. U.N. weapons inspectors destroy most of Iraq's nuclear, biological and chemical weapons programs.
2001: Al-Qaida, led by Sunni Muslim fundamentalists, mounts attacks in the United States, killing 3,000 people. The United States invades Afghanistan and ousts the Sunni Taliban government.
2003: The U.S. military invades Iraq, topples Saddam. An Iraqi insurgency erupts, led by Sunni Baathists and al-Qaida.
2005-2006: Iraqi elections bring Shiite political parties to power in Baghdad, backed by Iran. Sunni-Shiite sectarian violence intensifies.
2005: Hard-line fundamentalist Mahmoud Ahmadinejad is elected president in Iran. Iran pursues acquisition of nuclear technology.
2006: War breaks out between Israel and Hezbollah in Lebanon. The U.N. Security Council imposes economic sanctions on Iran in response to nuclear activities.
2007: The United States sends additional troops to Iraq.
The Society for Military History
Established in 1933 as the American Military History Foundation, renamed in 1939 the American Military Institute, and renamed again in 1990 the Society for Military History, the Society is devoted to stimulating and advancing the study of military history. Its membership (today more than 2700) has included many of the world's most prominent scholars, soldiers, and citizens interested in military history.
At its 2021 Annual Meeting in Norfolk, VA, the Society approved a new Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion Statement .
Organizations and entities interested in advertising on the Society&rsquos main page page can find relevant information here.
The Society for Military History is a proud member of the American Council of Learned Societies.